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Chapter Three-HEALTH.docx

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Psychology 2990A/B
Karen Dickson

Chapter Three-Psychology and Health Stress and Human Health Effects of Negative Life Events  Stress is the negative feelings and beliefs that occur whenever people feel unable to cope with demands from their environment.  The more an external event makes someone’s life different, the more stress it causes.  Social readjustment rating scale divorce is 73 points, trouble with boss is 23, the higher your score the worse your mental and physical health is. Perceived Stress and Health  Subjective situations have more of an impact on people then objective situations  The more stress people experience, the lower the immunity to diseases. Perceived Control  Perceived control the belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes  Perceived control is associated with good mental and physical health Perceived Control in Nursing Homes  Old people loose control over their lives when they enter nursing homes, increasing their sense of control results in better health and longer lives Self-Efficacy  Self efficacy the belief in ones ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes  It is not a general sense of control that predicts engaging in healthier behaviour, but the confidence that once can perform the specific behaviour in question.  Self-efficacy influences people’s persistence and effort at a task.  Self-efficacy influences the way our bodies react while we are working towards a goal.  Ex. in a study to get people to quit smoking, there were more likely too if they were told that they were chosen because they had a lot of control compared to people that were told they were chosen at random  The secret Explaining Negative Events: Learned Helplessness  Learned helplessness the state of pessimism that results from explaining a negative event as stemming from stable, internal and global factors.  Stable attribution the belief that the cause of an event is as result of factors that will not change over time, as opposed to unstable factors that will change over time (e.g. our intelligence)  Int
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