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Lecture 6

Psych 2301 - Lecture 6.docx

14 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 3301F/G
Graham Reid

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Clinical Health Psychology 04/22/2014 Objectives Know the definition of Health Psychology Understand the models of how psychosocial factors relate to health Be aware of the range of activities of a health psychologist Understand examples of psychological interventions related to health outcomes  Definitions: Health Psychology “the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific, and  professional contributions to the promotion and  maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of etiologic and diagnostic  correlates of health, illness and related dysfunction, and the analysis and improvement of the health policy  formation” Definitions: Behavioural Medicine “the interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical  science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge  and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis,  treatment, and rehabilitation” Common elements in definitions: Knowledge of psychological research in terms of Health Promoting healthy lifestyles Helping people adjust to health problems Research  Health Psychology 1940’s psychosomatic medicine 1960’s psychosocial factors in disease stressful life events (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) Type A personality  Front of the chairs wore out quickly b/c they sit at the end of their chairs Hostility element of Type A personality is linked to coronary heart disease Shift from acute infections illness to more chronic illness 1970’s Lalonde report (1974) Huge contribution from Canada Psychoneuroimmunology (Ader & Cohen, 1975) Biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1977) Says that it is important to look at psychological and social factors along with biological factors in terms of  disease 1980’s  behavioural pathogens (Mattarazzo, 1984) determinants of health   Etiology of Illness: Social support Social Support Scale Directions: Please indicate how you feel about each of the following statements. (1 = very strongly disagree;  7 = very strongly agree) 1. There is a special person who is around when I am in need.  2. There is a special person with whom I can share joys and sorrows.  3. My family really tries to help me. 4. I get the emotional help and support I need from my family. 5. I have a special person who is a real source of comfort to me. 6. My friends really try to help me. 7. I can count on my friends when things go wrong. Health Reaction Inventory (Endler and Parker) The following are ways of reacting to HEALTH PROBLEMS, such as ILLNESSES, SICKNESSES, and  INJURIES. These are typically difficult, stressful, or upsetting situations. We are interested in your last  illness, sickness, or injury (which you have just reported). Indicate how much you engaged in these types of  activities when you encountered this health problem. 1 = Not at all; 3 = Moderately; 5 = Very Much 1.Think about the good times I’ve had. 2.Stay in bed. 3.Find out more information about the illness. 4.Wonder why it happened to me. 5.Be with other people. 6.Lie down when I feel tired. 7.Seek medical treatment as soon as possible. 8.Become angry because it happened to me. despite we are lower than US, we still suck in comparison to the rest of the world Prevention of Illness Areas of Intervention Smoking cessation Obesity reduction Reducing alcohol abuse Reducing substance abuse Reducing high­fat diets Increasing physical activity Increasing motor vehicle safety Stress management  Chronic disease Alzheimer’s, arthritis, asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, kidney disease, spinal cord injury High­mortality illnesses Cardiovascular disease Cancer Stroke HIV/AIDs Pain Issues Psychological adjustment Treatment compliance & medical decision making Risk perception Risk reduction appraisal Preparation for procedures Death and dying Treatment of Insomnia – why
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