Teams= 2 or more people working towards a common goal
working together interdependently (interconnected)
Alpha Coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha, validity etc.: How
much scale items/question hang together statistically. i.e. I like
to party related to I like to talk for extroversion test. .7 or more
1 dependent variable:
Compare 2 means = t-test
Compare 3+ means = ANOVA
Compare 3+ means = MANOVA
Attitudinal and behavioral effects of autonomous group
working: a longitudinal field study:
Question: Do teams in self-directed work groups report more favorable work
attitudes then their counterparts in traditional jobs; do they miss work/quit more;
do other employees with similar skills feel less satisfaction when working along side
Shift Process Workers:
Established site: Traditional work design and autonomous group work.
Greenfield Site: Autonomous group work. Day Maintenance Workers:
Established Site: Traditional work design.
Greenfield Site: Traditional work design (separated as a non self directed team from
shift process workers – to determine hypo 3).
Individual Level (Assessed twice, 12 months apart: 8 months & 20 after start-up)
- Various perceptions of work measures i.e. job sat
- Organizational commitment
- Trust in management
Aggregate-level (12-month period)
- Absence records
Two types of workers: process workers and maintenance workers. Two plants, one
with interconnected self-directed team and one with independent team. Greenfield
plant with machine labor. Two years of shift work observed. Hypothesis 1 confirmed
but traditional employees had higher commitment (which differs from past study).
Hypo 2 not supported, in line with previous studies: could be because new plant was
farther away. Hypo 3 supported: traditional employees (maintenance workers)
upset with self-directed employees having less skill/more pay.
Conclusion: see above
Teams at work by Williams & Allen :
Question: Are teams effective (using past research highlights)
Evidence: Teams absolutely necessary in some cases, may have social-emotional
Enhancing team effectiveness:
- Team Design: U-shape, too small bad too big bad, self-directed team good.
- Team Composition: personality, intelligence, attitudes and demographic variables.
Absolutely effects team effectiveness.
- co-operation helpful but can be bad if not doing their own job.
- Communication important
- Both task conflict and intraworker conflict bad Affective states:
- cohesion (unity) is good. Same with trust, team belief, psychological safety
(belief team is safe to share feelings etc). little research done on how to
create these states.
- Shared mental models (SMM) which means the teams shared mental
knowledge of key elements about team is important for good proformance,
prevents misunderstanding, more time on task less conflict etc. Transactive
memory (TM) is awareness of who knows what, creates effective teamwork
More recent team perspectives:
The role of time needs to be given more consideration. Teams need time to develop
and thus study (forming; getting to know, storming; conflict etc, norming; trust and
cohesion development, and performing; goal attainment)
Most research looks at a few teams in depth or many teams not in depth, due to
dynamic nature of teams mor