Assumes that we evaluate targets based on our beliefs about them. Example of cognitive perspective on attitude formation comes from a previous lecture on attitude-behaviour consistency. Cognitive approach especially dominant in the area of persuasion (attitude change) via persuasive messages. Three programs of research on cognitive factors in persuasion have been most influential: yale model of persuasion, cognitive response theory, elaboration likelihood model. Carl hovland and others but who cares. Conducted the most systematic analysis of factors affection persuasion ever done. Focused on how people process and retain persuasive messages. Identified variables in persuasion settings that influence success of influence attempt. Identified stages that must occur in order for persuasion to be successful. Identified key elements in persuasive setting (i. e. independent variables): Yale group examined various aspects of each of the elements: Message: 1-sided vs. 2-sided, metaphors, explicit conclusions, order of arguments, fear appeals. Channel: face-to-face vs. written, audio vs. audio-visual. Goal was to determine how to maximize persuasion.