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affective approaches to cognition.docx

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Psychology 3723F/G
Martin Kavaliers

RECALL from first lectureattitudes can be based on one or more of 3 kinds of information cognitive information eg beliefs about the target affective information eg how the target makes you feel and behavioural information eg how you have behaved toward the object in the pastAffective Approachesthe main source of affect toward an object is often usually the individuals beliefs about the objectI believe steve is honestpositive feeling toward steveI believe apples are nutritiouspositive feeling toward applesI believe mosquito bites are itchynegative feeling toward mosquitosBut objects can elicit affect that is not a result of conscious beliefs or knowledgeThis affect does NOT come from conscious awareness that the object has positive or negative qualitiesThis affect nonetheless influences individuals evaluations of the target attitudes toward the targetTwo processes illustrate this phenomenon most clearlyEvaluative conditioningMere exposureConditioningSeveral types of conditioning have been identifiedInstrumental conditioning o DIAGRAM o reward encourages behaviour punishment discouragesclassical conditioning o DIAGRAMevaluative conditioning o DIAGRAMEvaluative Conditioningmany experiments have demonstrated evaluative conditioningeg Caccioppo et al 1992used 6letter words and nonwords as neutral stimulimild Annoying but not painful electric shocks were delivered to leg of participantssome ps were shocked for all words but no nonwords others shocked for all nonwords but no wordsps then rated each word and nonword on scale for how pleasant or unpleasant it waswhichever category was associated with shocks received more unpleasant ratings
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