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Chapter 10 Notes - Psych 3723

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Psychology 3723F/G
Olson James

Ch 10 - Resistance to Persuasion; Genetic Perspective onAttitudes  Widely accepted ideas that are virtually  Equality of opportunity may be never challenged desirable, not equality of outcomes Resistance to Persuasion o Strict application of equality principle can be - Theories directly related to resistance:  Lack cognitive support irrational  Makes them vulnerable to attack o Inoculation Theory  92 men & 4 women applied to be  McGuire, 1964 o “Toothbrushing after every meal is a good idea” firefighters in Canadian city (fictitious) o “Mental illness is not contagious”  Were only allowed to interview the  Addressed technique for increasing same # of men/women resistance to persuasion o Agreement rates of 13/15 on scale  None of the women passed strength o Resistance Theory o Cultural truisms are vulnerable to attack: test  Brehm, 1966  Toothbrushing – too much wears teeth,  Were forced to hire from pool of 4 men flossing is better, unnecessary expense  Addressed natural process that of toothpaste o P’s read msg attacked equality as a value induces resistance to persuasion  Mental Illness – causes stress in o Some P’s given info bf attack Inoculation Theory caregivers, which can cause problems in them; some contagious illnesses can  Supportive info: asked P’s to generate - McGuire adopted a biological analogy lead to stress & mental health reasons supporting equality - To protect against virus, people inoculated w/ weak/dead problems  Inoculation: provided arguments form of virus, stimulating development of antibodies that fight o Participants read msg attacking health related the virus against & counterarguments cultural truism - Attitude context? - Overall, inoculation gave protection against attack, & so did o Some given info bf attack supportive info o To protect against attitude change, people can be inoculated w/ weak persuasive attack, stimulating  Supportive info: reasons supporting o Maybe P’s in supportive condition used info to development of counterarguments that prevent counterargue attack  Inoculation: arguments against & attitude change - Bernard et al. (2003) argued we should incorporate counterarguments - How does attitude inoculation increase resistance to inoculation of values into school curriculum to increase influence? - Bernard et al., 2003 cognitive support & increase behaviour that is consistent w/ the value o Argued values often truisms: never challenged, o 1. Cognitive Effect: makes person provide actual Reactance Theory counterarguments that can be used in the future lack cognitive support o 2. Motivational Effect: makes person realize that o Values may but important, but can be vulnerable - Brehm, 1966 to attack the belief is vulnerable, which motivates them to o People motivated to protect their “free behaviours” generate counterarguments (either before or during later attack) o Ie;Attacks on value of equality  When an individual can physically & psychologically perform the behaviour - McGuire & Papageorgis, 1961  Philosophers have questioned validity of equality as an ideal o Attacked health-related “cultural truisms”:  Experience, custom, or agreement  More likely when freedom = important o All msgs argued regular flossing or limiting alc implies that an individual is free to do it for survival consumption but differed in forcefulness/threatening ability o Motive evolved bc protecting access to basic  Sometimes only response possible o For both messages; high threat msgs produced: needs had survival value o 4. Indirect reassertion of freedom by performing - If free behaviour is threatened/eliminated, we experience behaviour even more extreme  More anger psychological reactance: - Relevance to attitude change:  More –ve thoughts about msg/source  -ve, aversive state o Attempts to persuade threaten the target’s  Less favourable attitudes toward  Motivates re-establishment of freedom freedom to hold alternative views (incl current flossing/limiting alc view) - Intensity/Amount of reactance depends on:  Weaker behavioural intentions to follow o May produce boomerang effect – current views msg’s recommendations o 1. Importance of freedom become more strongly held Interpersonal Persuasion o 2.Amount of restriction - Brehm & Brehm, 1966 1. Perception of persuasive intent o 3. Implications for future threats to other free o U Washington students listened to audio speech addressing “teaching machines”
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