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Chapter 5 Notes - Psych 3723

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Psychology 3723F/G
Olson James

CognitiveApproaches to Attitudes: Advertising, Chapter 5 o Established at Yale University in the 50s/60s o Audience – self-esteem, intelligence, gender CognitiveApproaches o Led by Carl Hovland - Goal: to determine how to maximize persuasion - Dominant perspective o Other researchers included: Irving Janis, Muzafer o How did these factors increase/decrease - Rests on assumption that our evaluations of targets depend Sherif, William McGuire, Harold Kelley persuasion on our beliefs about them – cognitive information - Conducted most systematic analysis of factors affecting - Also identified steps/stages of persuasion; how a message persuasion ever done can ultimately affect attitudes and behaviour - Example of cognitive perspective on formation comes from prior lec. on attitude-behaviour consistency o Focused on how people process/retain persuasive o 1. Exposure (presentation of message) msgs – “message learning” o Theory of ReasonedAction o 2. Notice (attention to message) o Identified variables in persuasion settings that o Fishbein &Ajzen, 1975 influence success of influence attempt o 3. Understanding (comprehension of message) - Attitude represents a summary of an individual’s beliefs about o Identified stages that must occur in order for o 4.Acceptance/Persuasion (yielding to message) the target persuasion to be successful o 5. Memory (retention of message) - Contrast to motivational perspectives o Identified messages in setting and stages o 6. Behaviour (action on new attitude) - Especially dominant in area of persuasion (attitude change) - Key elements in persuasive setting: via persuasive messages - Stages 2-5 = psychological stages o Source of message o Newspaper editorials - Stages typically served as dependent variables in o Message itself experiments o Public health messages o Channel in which message is delivered o Face to face persuasion - Independent variables can theoretically affect 1+ of the dependent variables o Audience/target of message o Ads - Yale Model = systematic, ahead of its time - Elements typically served as independent variables in - Three programs of research on cognitive factors in persuasion have been most influential: experiments Source Credibility o Would be manipulated and determine how - Most researched of characteristics o Yale Model of Persuasion persuasion was affected by the change - Source characteristics: credibility o Cognitive Response Theory - Yale group examined various aspects of each of the elements: - Credibility has 2 components o Elaboration Likelihood Model (current) o Source – credibility, powerful speech, similarity, attractiveness o Expertise – knowledge, intelligence, training, age, - Persuasion looks at how attitudes change experience o Message – 1-sided vs. 2-sided, metaphors, explicit - Each model ^ builds upon previous conclusions, order of arguments, fear appeals o Trustworthiness – honest, nothing to gain, integrity Yale Model of Persuasion o Channel – face to face vs. written, audio vs. audio- o ** ideal combo is someone w/ both ^^ - Tale Communication Research Program visual - More credibility associated w/ > persuasion - Credibility interacts w/ other factors - Participants in high and low credibility conditions “learned” - Gruder et al. (1978) – prerequisites needed for sleeper effect content equally, but acceptance was reduced by low credibility to be possible - Trustworthiness seen as more important than expertise cue o 1. Message must be persuasive Credibility X Time: Sleeper Effect - Over time, low credibility cue became dissociated from content, content was able to influence attitudes  High cred must produce significant - High credibility generally increases persuasion, but over time, immediate attitude change effect of credibility weakens - People forget source of message over time o 2. Low cred cue must significantly impair - As time passes diff. b/w high and low credibility may decrease - If dissociation of source and content is responsible for sleeper immediate attitude change effect, then “reinstating” credibility info should eliminate - Why? interaction b/w credibility and time o 3. Low cred participants must process message o B/c people forget the source of the message - If participants are reminded of the credibility of the info then  Manipulate cred after msg has been delayed conditions should be similar to the immediate heard to ensure msg is processed - Produces sleeper effect conditions o 4. Discounting cue must be forgotten by delayed - Low credibility generally inhibits persuasion initially, but over- Kelman & Hovland, 1953 measure time there can be an increase in persuasion – as person “sleeps” on the message o Participants listened to msg arguing that juvenile  Delay must be significant delinquents should be treated severely, not o Message has more effect when participant has compassionately o 5. High cred delayed attitude change must be time to sleep on it o Speaker introduced by moderator who insinuated significantly greater than low cred immediate attitude change - Hovland & Weiss, 1952 credibility (high or low) of each speaker  High cred delayed is ceiling for low cred o Participants read article arguing USAshould NOT o Participants attitudes measured immediately & and develop nuclear subs @ 3 weeks delayed  Change @ high cred @ T2, must be > o Source of msg: o Before completing delayed attitude measure; low cred @ T1  High – US scientist  Reinstatement of credibility; listened to Powerful vs Powerless Speech intro again  Low – Soviet communist newspaper - Source characteristic  No reinstatement of credibility; did not o Participants opposition (neg. attitude) to US listen to intro again - Types developing nuclear subs measured immediately and @ 4 weeks  ** credibility manipulated o 1. Disclaimers – imply speaker’s comments are preliminary and may not be valid o Results? o Sleeper effect still appeared o 2. Hedges – indicate lack of confidence; imply  Significant increase in low credibility o But when reminded of source, persuasion didn’t speaker is uncertain about accuracy of his/her info person/source over time change from first o 3. Speech Hesitations – indicate nervousness; may o “Dissociation of source and content in memory” o Sleeper effect = increase in persuasion over time imply deceptiveness - Attempts to produce true sleeper effect have often been o 4. Polite Forms – imply low status; indicate unsuccessful uncertainty - Erikson, 1978 - His approach contrasted w/ motivational perspectives (ie  More personal relevance = greater dissonance theory) impact of strong argument o Participants received background info about civil damages trial - Favourable thoughts about message or source =  Petty & Cacioppo, 1979 proarguments o Read written transcript or listened to audiotape - Patterns of thought paralleled patterns of attitude change witness testimony - Unfavourable thoughts about message or source = counterarguments
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