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Chapter 9 Notes - Psych 3723

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Western University
Psychology 3723F/G
Olson James

Chapter 9: Prejudice  Poor - Competition arouses negative feelings and dislikes for the opponents Definitions Sources of Prejudice - Creates a sense of “us” vs “them” - Stereotypes: a set of characteristics that a perceiver associates w/ members of a group (cognitive); can be positive - What are the underlying sources of prejudice? Why do we evaluate members of some groups so negatively> - Lack of success causes frustration and resentment or negative - Five processes/mechanisms will be discussed: - Ex; people may be more prejudiced against specific groups - Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which can be strongly held (evaluative; attitude); always that are common in region than against people in other o Evolution regions negative o Socialization - Lynchings in theAmerican South during 1882-1930 were - Discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people negatively related to cotton prices (Hovlnad & Sears, 1940) based on their group membership (behaviour, overt); always negative o Competition for resources o Later analyses found that lynchings were highest o Cognitive processes when a recession followed a period of economic Prejudice well-being – when frustration might be expected to o Motivational processes - Who are common targets of prejudice? be greatest (Hepworth & West, 1988) o Racial/ethnic groups Evolution Cognitive Processes - Humans evolved in small groups that often had conflictual - When negative stereotypes exist, they can lead directly to  Native Canadians relationships w/ surrounding outgroups discrimination  African Canadians;Asian Canadians - Negative outcomes often resulted from contact w/ outgroups: - -ve stereotypes can also lead to biased info processing  Jews; Muslims o Violence/injury o More likely to notice consistent info  Immigrants o Slavery/prisoner o More likely to interpret ambiguous info as consistent o Homosexuals o Disease o Easier to retrieve consistent info from memory  Gay men; Lesbians - Led to innate suspicion/fear of outgroup members - We process info in a biased way:  Both sexes are more negative to own- - Mere exposure effect is the opposing tendency to prefer known or familiar things o Erroneous negative stereotypes may not be sex homosexuals disconfirmed when they should be • Inconsistent w/ “competition” Socialization o Erroneous negative stereotypes may even get view - Children are often taught extremely negative views of stronger outgroups • Consistent w/ a “fear of being approached” view - Ex: Stereotypes affect how we interpret info - Discriminatory behaviours can be rewarded by parents and peer groups o Sagar & Schofield, 1980 o Demographic groups Competition  Women (sexism)  Children looked at drawings of ambiguous behaviours - When resources are scarce, we may be competing against  Elderly (ageism) outgroups  Actions committed by black model - Positive emotions o Outgroup is seen as threatening moral fibre of judged more aggressive than same community actions committed by white model o Feelings of superiority from perceiving ingroup as better than outgroup o Strange customs & beliefs threaten familiar  True for both white & black children; holidays and traditions black children may internalize normative o Superiority via prejudice may be especially views rewarding for people who are not successful in - 3. Threats from IntergroupAnxiety own lives o People feel awkward/unsure about interactions w/ - These biases in info processing produced by stereotypes can serve to strengthen them, even when they are wrong Integrated Threat Theory members of outgroup - Self-fulfilling prophesies - Stephan & Stephan, 2000 o Language difficulties make communication difficult/confusing - Comprehensive model that brings together aspects of other o 1 – perceiver’s expectancy about target  approaches o Anxiety motivates avoidance; therefore, -ve o 2 – perceiver’s behaviour toward target  stereotypes never tested - Some key tests done in Can. o Ex; Meta-stereotypes: beliefs about how one’s o 3 – target’s behaviour matches expectancy - Basic hyp: ingroup is perceived by members of an outgroup - Cognitive stereotypes can lead to behavioural discrimination o Perceived threats underlie prejudice (negative - 4. ThreatsArising from Negative Stereotypes attitudes) toward an outgroup o Perceiver believes that members of outgroup o Four kinds of perceived threats can occur: possess undesirable characteristics  Realistic o Undesirable characteristics pose threats to perceiver’s ingroup Motivational Processes  Symbolic o Outgroup members might act detrimentally toward - Several emotions associated w/ prejudice/discrimination, both  Anxiety-related perceiver’s group –ve & +ve - Barry Corenblum (2001)  Stereotype-related - Negative emotions - 1. Realistic Threats o Tested full Integrated Threat Theory w/ samples of o Fear Whites & Native Can’s in Brandon-Winnipeg areas o Threats resulting from competition for scarce o 110 White; 127 Native o Anger resources o Hatred o Jobs, political power, food, land/territory o Completed measures of: ea. type of threat, attitudes toward outgroup o Resentment o Threats of aggression (ex; wartime enemy) o 1 – Realistic threats (agree-disagree) o Anxiety o “realistic” does not mean perceived threats are  Whites hold too many positions of accurate power/responsibility - Genocide almost always preceded by campaigns of fear, hatred, and anger - 2. Symbolic Threats  Whites receive too much of money - Leads to dehumanization of target group spent on health and child care o Perceived threat to attitudes, beliefs, values o 2 – Symbolic threats (agree-disagree) - Most prejudice- reduction techniques based on contact o 1. Reduces anxiety about intergroup interactions hypothesis  Natives and Whites have incompatible o 2. Cooperative behaviours ar
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