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Chapter 8 Notes - Psych 3723

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Psychology 3723F/G
Olson James

Chapter 8 & Illegitimate Social Influence: Propaganda & Cults c. Authority is similar to factors in persuasion o Free gifts/favors literature like credibility and expertise (authorities Social Influence usually credible and may be chosen b/c they are o Physically attractive/likeable spokesperson experts) - Having an impact on other people 3. Social Proof d. Deference to authority can become automatic o Influence attitudes/beliefs (persuasion) a. Tend to do what other people do  Illegitimate use of authority cues can elicit obedience or o Influence behaviour (conformity) persuasion when it is not warrented; ie: b. Social comparison important way of determining appropriate behaviours and beliefs - Legitimate social influence o Clothing that implies authority c. Usually makes sense to follow the lead of other o Usually based on strong arguments o False/misleading titles people o Agent does not hide attempt to influence o Associate self w/ locations/groups that imply d. Consensus info can become shortcut for deciding authority how to behave o Agent wants influence to be genuine – target willingly changes attitudes or behaviour o Use cues of wealth that imply authority e. Consensus info is especially influential when situation is ambiguous - Illegitimate social influence  Bickman, 1974  Compliance professionals can manipulate alleged o Not based on strong arguments o Young man approaches people asking to give consensus info to influence targets; ie o Agent may hide attempt to influence stranger dollar for meter o Portray product desired by ‘in crowd’ o People more likely to give dollar if young man o Agent does not care if target willingly changes o Create fads attitudes or behaviour was dressed to be an authority figure (ie in a suit) o Imply that everyone cares about problem o Often motivated by selfish goals 2. Liking - Principles of Illegitimate Social Influence  Bandwagon effect: people want to belong to popular a. Tend to agree w/ and follow recommendations of movments people we like o Cialdini, 2001 o Mehrabian, 1966 b. For most targets, reflects legit cue - These principles are not necessarily illegitimate, but they are exploited by compliance professionals ; ie:  People more likely to vote for c. Similar to factors in persuasion literature politicians in more favor of public (attractiveness & similarity) o Salesperson, organizations and business, gov’s 4. Consistency d. Deference to liked targets can become automatic - Some principles may seem obvious, but are often unrecognized by the targets a. Valued in society  Compliance professionals can use liking to elicit compliance or persuasion; ie b. Inconsistency implies uncertainty, weakness, and 1. Authority tendency to flip-flop a. Sources who possess cues of authority tend to be o Excessive friendliness of salespersons c. People genuinely want to be consistent in actions obeyed o Praise/false compliments and beliefs over time b. Often makes sense to rely on authorities o Attempts to appear similar to targets d. Want to appear consistent to others  Compliance professionals can exploit desire to be b. Implies popularity; suggests product is high in - Most treatments of topic are theoretical in nature, based on consistent quality archival analyses of propaganda in the real world o Foot in the door technique c. Threatens our freedom to obtain object, which - Propose various techniques used by propagandists/motives makes it more attractive to us  Ask small favor (target agrees) - Bateman et al., 1992  Compliance professionals can make something seem scarce in order to increase its attractiveness; o Examined impact of “Roger and Me” by Michael  Ask for larger favor (target more likely to agree) Moore o “limited time” “limited number” offers o Low ball technique o Criticised GM plan closing o “last one in store” o Roger was CEO of GM  Offer something at low cost (target agrees) o Arrange to have more than one customer examine product at the same time o Interviewed people coming out from Roger and Me and compared them to people going into Roger  Increase cost (target more likely to o Special days of sales can create frenzy of and Me purchase) buying 5. Reciprocity  Those coming out were: Propaganda • More cynical about GM a. Strong reciprocity norm exists in our society; if - Illegitimate social influence someone does you a favour, you should do them a favour in return • More cynical aboutAmerican - Persuasive attempt/campaign that is motivated by a specific business in general ideology, or set of values, and is deliberately biased in its b. Recieiving help creates sense of obligation presentation of the information - Baines et al., 2007 c. Applies even if favor form other person was not o Motivated by ideology, or set of values requested o Recruited British Muslims o Biased in presentation of information  Can be exploited to reduce compliance; ie o Focus groups; discussed 5 examples of islamist
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