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Chapter 6 Notes - Psych 3723

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Western University
Psychology 3723F/G
Olson James

Chapter 6: Affective Approaches toAttitudes o 6-letter words and nonwords as neutral stimuli o Other character constantly paired w/ -ve images/words AffectiveApproaches o Mild shocks delivered to legs o Task? Watch for specific character and press - Attitudes can be based on 1+ of 3 kinds of info: o Some shocked for all words but no nonwords; key quickly as possible o Cognitive (beliefs about target) some shocked for all nonwordsbut no words o Participants asked to rate images on a scale o Rated each word and nonword on scale for of unpleasant (-4) to pleasant (4) o Affective (how it makes you feel) how pleasant or unpleasant they were o Whichever pokemon character was o Behavioural (how you behave towards it) o Whichever category was associated w/ associated w/ +ve stimuli was rated as more shocks received more unpleasant ratings pleasant than whichever pokemon character - Important source of affect towards object? Individuals’ was associated w/ -ve stimuli belief about the object o Effect stronger for nonwords for words o Contingency awareness was tested; - Objects can elicit affect that is not a result of consciou- Problem? participants did not estimate that one beliefs or knowledge pokemon was associated w/ +ve/-ve images more than the other - This affect does NOT come from conscious awareness o Awareness of connection b/w conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli that the object has +ve OR –ve qualities (“contingency awareness”) - Humans easily conditioned o Still influences evaluations of target (attitude) o Some investigators found that predicted - We all have attitudes that were influenced by results occurred only among participants who conditioning (ie; phobias) - Two processes: consciously perceived connection b/w conditioned and unconditioned stimuli Mere Exposure Effect o Evaluative Conditioning - Familiarity leads to liking - Olsen & Fazio, 2001 o Mere Exposure o Wanted to use procedure that reduced - Tend to feel +vely about things we are familiar w/  Tendency for repeated exposure to likelihood of contingency awareness - Repeated exposure leads to greater liking even when an object, even w/out reinforcement, to increase liking for o Participants saw continuous stream of stimuli there is no reinforcement object on computer screen: pokemon characters, other images/photos, words - Zajonc (1960) Conditioning o Sometimes one image on screen, sometimes o Exposed participants to Chinese language - Instrumental Conditioning two images; locations of images varied on characters diff numbers of times, from 0-25 screen - Classical Conditioning o Ever character shown frequently to some and o 400+ trials; 40 involved two CS’s infrequently to others - Evaluative Conditioning o CS = 2 relatively unknown pokemon o Alleged purpose of study to investigate o Pairing something w/ unpleasant stimuli leads perceptions of foreign languages characters to unpleasant affect o 1 character constantly paired w/ +ve o Told that all characters were adjectives in Evaluative Conditioning images/words (20 trials) Chinese language, w/ either fav or unfav meaning - Caccioppo et al., 1992 o After exposure trials, participants guessed - Other studies have shown even more convincingly that o Proposed that high fear is aversive, so people whether each character had +ve or –ve conscious recognition is not necessary for mere ignore or discount msg to reduce fear meaning in Chinese exposure effect to occur - Researchers began to focus on mediating processes in o Prediction? Participants would guess that FearAppeals and Persuasion fear appeals: perceptions and motivations that can either more familiar characters had fav meaning facilitate or inhibit persuasion - Do fear-provoking messages increase acceptance of o Why? Would feel more +vely about more recommendations? - Leventhal (1970) proposed Parallel Response Model to familiar characters identify two different motives aroused by threatening - Fear appeals in advertisements: messages, which can have competing effects o Repeated exposure did not provide any new information about the characters o National RifleAssociation - Fear Control: desire to reduce fear o Repeated exposure did not involve any o Smoking o Fear = unpleasant reinforcement or punishment o Etc... o Use distraction, avoidance of message o Seem to have reflected increased liking caused by simple exposure (affective, not - One of the oldest topics in experimental research on o Reduction of fear is rewarding cognitive) persuasion o Can interfere w/ persuasion to msg - Mita, Dermer & Knight (1977) - Janis & Feshback, 1953 - Danger Control: desire to reduce threat to self o Familiarity w/ faces o Message referred to –ve consequences of failing to brush teeth, incl infection, cavities, o Arises from instinct for self-preservation o Participants have photos taken loss of teeth, p
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