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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Cognitive Psychology

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Western University
Psychology 3950F/G
Mark Cole

Lecture 11: Cognitive Psychology – “I‟m back!” Background  Banished from North American psychology, mainly due to behaviourism  Cognition defined as “the action or faculty of knowing”  Cognitive processes include: attention, memory, concepts, imagery, problem solving, reasoning, judgment, and language  Miller is still alive George Miller (1920-2012) Life  MA in English 1941  PhD in Psychology from Harvard in 1945 in vocal communication  Interested in artificial intelligence o Around the time that the computer was being invented o The first attempt at comparing human cognition to the way computers work  With Bruner, he created the Centre for Cognitive Studies at Harvard Work  Miller, Gallanter, and Pibram (1960)  Rejected SR model?  Top-down model like an inverted pyramid  Plans likened to computer programs o Higher level (molar) routines called strategies o Lover level (molecular) routines called tactics TOTEs  Test-operative-test-exit routines (tactics): Input Test CongruityExit Incongruity Operate  Input is tested against a standard and if congruous (test passed) the routine is excited  If incongruous (test failed) the routine is run again until congruity achieved  TOTEs can be combined and nested to create more-complicated TOTEs Input Superordinate Test Exit Yes No Test 1 Test 2 No No Operate 1 Operate 2  Here a failed higher-level initiates two sequential TOTE subroutines that must be passed or operated before the higher-level question is re-asked  An example: reducing hammering a nail in a board into a computer program o The overarching plan would be to build a house o Would bring in the various strategies/tactics required o One of the main tactics would be to hammer a nail, among others Input Test Nail Exit Flush Not Flush Test Hammer Test Hammer Down Up Lift HammerLower Hammer Computer Models of Human Intelligence  Artificial intelligence and the Turing Test o Believed that computers would eventually be able to pass the Turing test and thus be unable to be distinguished as human – has not been achieved yet, but is thought to occur soon  Speed of processing not the issue Subjective Behaviourism  Focus on cognition should be study of plans  Technique (Binet, Dunkard and Clapared) of thinking aloud o Miller favoured “thinking aloud” – can‟t read other people‟s minds, but can come close, because you can listen to what someone is saying and assume that they have a functioning mind that is similar to one‟s own (theory of mind)  Metacognition  Miller‟s tongue-in-cheek reference to subjective behaviourism Drawing the Battle Lines  As APA President, Miller came out for education over control as the task facing Psychologists o A focus on understanding vs. control would better aim the improvement at human welfare – would improv
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