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Psychology (6,277)
Eric Ball (17)


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Psychology 4223F/G
Eric Ball

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The items that representing a subset of questions, that are widely used from the ‘big five’inventory These are types of things that are asked in order to determine their standing, and with these questions one is able to get a pretty reliable standing Before talking about the big five, other measures in the past are also crucial One of the most prominent set of researchers, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae who developed in the 1980s the most widely used inventory in measuring the big five, using Raymond Catell’s questionnaire (factor analysis)  In subsequent analysis, they found that there were about 3 dimensions, not 16 Neuroticism and extroversion (big two) and openness to experience, later in their analysis they found two more basic dimensions, agreeableness and conscientiousness, representing the big five, and if you take any pre existing personality inventory, these factors will appear over and over again, very robust From all of this research ended up producing an instrument that is the most widely used indicator called the Neo-PIR (Personality Inventory Revised), long instrument takes about 35-40 minutes to complete, 240 items, you can use it for self report or peer report, and it is stable across administration considerations (person alone in a room, or in big audience) These 240 items measure these big five traits called domains, these big items reflect different spheres or concerns of social or emotional functioning and within these domains are more narrow traits called facets (specific areas) and there are 6 facets for each trait, each facet shows a different aspect of each trait Reliability of these scores are very reliable (high 80’s to low 90 correlation) The neo PIR, still probably widely used instrument, plus it is copyrighted, so now there are a variety of clones that are publicly used (open source) The big 5 inventory developed by Oliver john, 44 items More recently, Gosling showed that 10 items in total would be a pretty good indicator, numbers are interpretable with respect to other scores Neuroticism (worries a lot, depressed /is blue, can be tense) reflects a general propensity/readiness to experience emotional distress (sad, vulnerable, irritable) 6 different facets that measure neuroticism, including anxiety, angry hostility, depression, self- consciousness, impulsive, ways in which we express or show how messed up we can be, defining whole is negative affect (basic negative emotions), but has more concrete predictions, like greater marital/ relationship instability, report being less satisfied and more likely to dissolve (dissatisfaction and dissolution) Extroversion (is talkative, generates a lot of enthusiasm, is full of energy) the general propensity to the enthusiastic and social engagement, assertive and social, sensitivity to social interaction When measure 6 facets are warm, sociable, assertive, high activity levels, excitement seekers, experience positive emotions Cannot predict frequency of your extroversion (how happy, enthusiastic or excited you would be) over a month’s period by looking at neuroticism scores Neuroticism predicts negative emotions not negative, extroversion predicts positive and not negative, reason is counter intuitive emotional factor that positive and negative affect are not correlated Over a long period of time you can have one or the other or a combination of both good and bad experiences but the two are not in congruence with each other Extroversion predicts other things, most notable dominance and social rank, don’t just get along with others but they get ahead E.g. Dacker Keltner at Berkley studied natural social groups, kids living in dorms, sororities, and measured the big five by having each of the kids measure each other by the big 5, so every kid knew how every other group member saw their status, so Dacker asked what predicted status? àextroversion. Highly extroverted people are seen prominently in a group of people as prominent, respectful and influential Agreeableness (likes to cooperate with others, is helpful and unselfish with others, has a forgiving nature) broad propensity to be friendly, cooperative, to stress importance of getting along with others When measure, the 6 different facets are trust, straightforwardness, altruism, modesty and tender mindedness, tends to be giving, focused on others, go a
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