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Lecture

Psychology 4223F/G Lecture Notes - Social Cognitive Theory, Observational Learning, Frontal Lobe

3 pages39 viewsFall 2012

Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 4223F/G
Professor
Eric Ball

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Behaviourism is the second force of three forces that dominated 20th century (the first being
psychoanalysis, a dark view o people and their behaviour)
This is a relative neutral view, value-free point of view on behaviour
Prof Fourniers experience with his teacher, he acquired while learning, learning by observation, he didn’t
have to perform every technique to learn it, he would adjust his performance of a technique to match
his teachers -self efficacy, his own competence emerged (self-reflective)
Modern social cognitive theory begins with radical behaviours (Pavlov, Skinner, etc)
Earliest theories of human theories involved learning through association, a kind of learning that was
termed by Pavlov, classical conditioning , how things in the world are associated with each other
Unconditioned stimuli, any even or thing in the world, that automatically has an automatic response
(reflexive, if someone comes and blows in your eye, you‘ll blink, you don’t have to learn to do that)
Tone goes off and they blow in your face and you blink, and the repetition of the tone then blow in your
face, will cause you to blink without the puff in your face, and only the tone which is a conditioned or
learned response
Watson used these theories with animals and nine month old Albert, Albert wasn’t afraid without anything,
but then every time he presented a rat, he turned on a loud screechy noise that scared the baby, so after
a while, when the rat was shown, the baby feared for the associated noise and therefore was afraid of
the rat, and other things that were white also made Albert afraid, other problems
Significant responses are also learned behaviours through associations with unconditioned stimuli
We learn through occasion and consequence also, called instrumental conditioning, if you imagine little
boy who sees a bookshelf, and decides to treat it as a ladder, what causes the boy to climb the
bookshelf, the unconditioned stimulus that causes him to climb, skinner says there is nothing causing
him to climb, but the bookshelf poses the opportunity and occasion to climb, however there are
consequences to actions, if he sees something shiny and reaches it, he will be encouraged to climb the
book shelf, but if he brings the book shelf down upon him, he would be unlikely to climb another one
Skinner saw behaviour as occurring in situation as opportunities or occasions, and there are consequences,
positive increasing the likelihood of that behaviour, and negative consequences decreasing the
likelihood
Our behaviour is learned through our consequences of our actions
Thorndike called this the law of effective
Thorndike has this idea how behaviours created a satisfied or dissatisfied state of being (the difference of
skinners theory)
Skinner coined the reinforcing (positive consequences that reinforce or encourage behaviours), punishing
(negative consequences that punish and discourage behaviours) and shaping concept (the occurrence of
reinforcers and punishers that help to shape our behaviour, the production of a particular kind of
behaviour because of the systematic way that creates it)
e.g. story of shaping, skinners class tried to play a trick, every time he is one side of the room, no one paid
any attention, made a lot of noise, etc. but when he stood on the other side of the lecture hall, everyone
was quiet, paid attention, made eye contact, etc. So by the end of the year, skinner was trained to stand
at side of the hall where more of his students listened, by the reinforcing an punishing qualities of his
audience, without his awareness (probably not true)
Early views of learning, we learn by association and through occasion and consequence, basic ideas of
skinner and Watson, predominated most of the century of human behaviour
There was an emphasis on observable behaviour, things that can be measured, focus on experimentation,
too look at behaviour under controlled stimulated instances to look at what causes causality
Idea of parsimony, simplicity, the number of principles is small, the number of things that it explains is a
whole wide range of phenomenas
Problems of behaviourism include that you lose sight of the learner, none of the laws make any reference
inside the mind of the behaviour, and to some extent, we know there are thoughts, feelings, motives
and goals, and it is more intuitive if they are incorporated
There is an aspect to behaviourism that leaves us wanting, since one who is doing the learning is lost
Personality is a sum of habits that one has acquired through associative learning (Watson)
One of the ones to express dissatisfaction of this theory was Bandoura, one of the first social learning
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