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Pschology 100 chapters 1-8

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter1October1110103PMPsychology1000Chapter1NotesDiscoveryofBrainBehaviourRelationsLuigiGalvaniperformedanexperimentwithfroglegandelectricityanddiscoveredthatbrainsignalswereelectricalinnatureKarlLashleycreatedlesionsinspecificpartsofthebraintostudyitseffectonmemoryandlearningJamesOldsandPeterMilnerofMcGillUniversitydiscoveredthatcertainareasofthebraingaveanimalspleasurablesensationsEEG1929allowedresearcherstomeasurebrainactivityincertainareasofthebrainBiochemicalresearchshowsthatthebrainselectricalactivityiscontrolledbychemicalsreleasedbynervecellsTheseareknownasneurotransmittersoEvolutionandBehaviourFromDarwintoEvolutionPsychologyHumansexistbecauseofourancestorsabilitytoadapttoachanginghostileenvironmentDarwinsEvolutionaryTheoryDarwinproposedthatspeciesevolveovertimeasaresponsetoenvironmentalconditionsinaprocesscallednaturalselectionAnyinheritablecharacteristicthatenhancessurvivalwillbemaintainedHisworkwasinspiredbya5yeartriptoSouthAmericaandwaspublishedinhisbookOntheOriginofSpeciesModernEvolutionaryPsychologyAnorganismsbiologydeterminesitsbehaviouralcapabilitiesanditsbehaviorOnetheoryisthatevolutionarypressuresforcehumanbeingstolearnthinkreasonandsocializemoreeffectivelySociobiologyhoweverstatesthatcomplexsocialbehavioursarealsobuiltintothehumanspeciesasaproductofevolutionItstatesthatbehaviorthatlikensthechanceofpassingonoffspringsarealsofavoredoThisincludesaggressioncompetitionanddominanceinmalesreproduceoftenduringtheirlifetimeBehaviourGeneticsBehaviourgeneticsisthestudyofhowbehvaiouraltendenciesareinfluencedbygeneticfactorsEgFightingfisharebredbymatingverybrightandaggressivepairsoEgIdenticaltwinshavesimilarbehaviorcomparedtofraternaltwinsoCognitivePerspectiveTheviewpointwherehumansareproblemsolverswhoseactionsaregovernedbythoughtsandplanningConcernedwithhowinformationisperceivedandorganizedinourmindsOriginsoftheCognitivePerspectiveTitchenerandWundtapproachwasknownasStructuralismbecausetheyanalyzedthemindintermsofitsbasicelements Psych 1000 My Notes Page 1 termsofitsbasicelementsTheybelievedthatsensationsarethebasicelementsofconsciousnessandtheystudieditbyusingintrospectionStructuralismeventuallydiedoutandgavewaytofunctionalismwhichstudiesthefunctionsofconsciousnessGestaltpsychologywasconcernedwithhowelementsofexperienceareorganizedintoawholeitarguesthatthesumofallperceptionsisgreaterthananddifferentfromtheindividualopartsKohlerisaleaderinthisfieldandstudiedAnimalsontheCanaryIslandsduringWWIoHeconcludedthattheabilitytoperceiverelationshipsistheessenceofintelligenceandothatinsightistheperceptionofausefulrelationshiporsolutiontoaproblemanaHAmomentEgKohlerplacedabananaoutofreachofanapebutputaboxneartheapeTheapefiguredouthowtousetheboxtoreachthebananaPiagetCognitivedevelopmentinchildrenPiagetspent50yearsstudyinghowchildrenthinkreasonandsolveproblemsPiagetconcludedthatnewandspecificstagesofcognitivedevelopmentunfoldnaturallyaschildrenmatureCognitiveapproachestopsychologicaldisordersAlbertEllisandAaronBecktriedtounderstandhowmentaldistortionsandirrationalthoughtspatternscreateemotionalproblemsDistressandmaladaptivebehaviorisnotonlycausedbyexternalfactorsbutbythewaywethinkaboutthesituationsModernCognitiveScienceArtificialintelligencedevelopscomputermodelsofcomplexhumanthoughtreasoningandproblemsolvingBycreatingmodelsthatduplicatenaturalcognitiveprocessabetterunderstandingofhowhumansthinkcanbegainedEgTherearecomputerizedmedicaldiagnosticsystemsthatarebasedonthethoughtoprocessofeminentphysiciansHebbwroteabookcalledTheorganizationofbehaviorAneuropsychologicaltheoryorepeatedusageisassociatedincarryingoutresponsesmoreeffectivelypracticemakesperfectSocialConstructivismSocialConstructivismclaimsthatalargepartofwhatpeopleconsiderrealityisalargepartofourmentalcreationAlittlepartofsharedrealityexistsPsychodynamicPerspectiveTheForcesWithinPsychodynamicperspectivesearchesforthecausesofbehaviorwithintheworkingsofourpersonalityandtheroleofunconsciousprocessesEgDoingsomethingoutofcharacterandsomethingthatyouwerenotmeaningtodoinothefirstplaceFreudemphasizedtheroleofcomplexpsychologicalforcesthatcontrolhumanbehaviorHefocusedonthetreatmentofhysteriaapsychologicaldisorderinwhichphysicalsymptomssuchasblindnesspainorparalysisdevelopwithoutanyphysicalwoesHeuseshypnosisandfreeassociationtotreathispatientsandhispatientstellhimaboutoforgotteninstancesofchildhoodsexualabuseHeconcludedthathispatientswerepromptedtocreatethesefantasiesbyacompellingandunsatisfiedsexualdrivethatisauniversalaspectofhumannatureFreudbelievesthatmuchofhumanbehaviorisinfluencedbyforceswhichhumansareunawareFreudclaimsthatourchildhoodhasasignificantimpactonouradultpersonalitiesFreudsuspectedthatbecausesomeofourearlysexualneedsarepunishedwelearntofear Psych 1000 My Notes Page 2 FreudsuspectedthatbecausesomeofourearlysexualneedsarepunishedwelearntofearthemandbecomeanxiouswhenwebecomeawareoftheirpresenceTheseanxietiesarecopedwiththroughdefensemechanismsoOneofthemostimportantisrepressionwhichprotectsusbykeepingimpulsesfeelingsoandmemoriesintheunconsciouspartofthemindTheyremainthereasasourceofenergystrivingforreleaseoSomeofFreudsresearchwascontradictedandsomeotherswerevalidatedIthelpedstimulatethedevelopmentofnewtheoriesaswellaspromotenewresearchoCurrentDevelopmentsScientistsworkingwithinthebiologicalperspectivehaveidentifiedbrainmechanismsthatcanproduceemotionalreactionsofwhichweareconsciouslyunawareCognitivescientistshaveshownthatmanyaspectsofinformationprocessingoccuroutsideofourawarenessBehaviouralPerspectiveThePoweroftheEnvironmentFocusesontheroleoftheexternalenvironmentinshapingandgoverningouractionsPeoplesbehaviorisjointlydeterminedbylearnedhabitsfromtheirlifeexperienceorfromtheirimmediateenvironmentOriginsoftheBehaviouralPerspectivethBehaviouralperspectivecomesfroma17centuryschoolofphilosophyknownasBritishempiricismAllideasandknowledgearegainedempiricallythroughthesensesoHumansareablanksheetofpaperandisdifferentiatedbyexperienceoBehaviourismBehaviourismisaschoolofthoughtthatemphasizesenvironmentalcontrolofbehaviorthroughlearningJohnBWatsonwasagainststructuralistsfunctionalistsandpsychoanalystsandarguedthatproperpsychologyshouldbebasedonobservableactionsStructuralistsbelievethatoneisonlyinfluencedbyoutsideforcesandnottheirinnatetendenciesBehaviouristsdonotfocusonwhatoutsideBFSkinnerwasafamousbehaviouristBehaviourmodificationispossiblebyalteringtheenvironmentalfactorsthatstimulatebehaviorCognitiveBehaviourismCognitiveBehaviourismisanattempttocombinebehaviouralandcognitiveperspectivestomakeamorecomprehensivetheoryThistheorystatesthattheenvironmentgivesustheknowledgetobehaveeffectivelyEgIfweseesomeonedosomethingeffectivewestoreitinourmemoryanduseitforolaterTheHumanisticPerspectiveFreedomandSelfActualizationHumanisticperspectiveemphasizesapersonsinnatetendenciestowardgrowthandtofindultimatemeaninginexistenceItemphasizestheroleoftheinternalthoughtprocessoHumanistsbelievethateverypersonstrivestowardselfHactualizationpersonalpotential Psych 1000 My Notes Page 3
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