Class Notes (836,147)
Canada (509,656)
Psychology (6,254)
Psychology 1000 (2,471)
Dr.Mike (1,250)
Lecture

Chapter 9.docx

10 Pages
132 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 9: Thought, Language, and Intelligence (p.334) - Humans are smaller physically but dominate because of ability to manipulate into forms of language, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving mental representations: variety of forms – images, ideas, concepts, principles o E.g. mental representations transferred from mind to mind through medium of language LANGUAGE - Brain achieved present form 50,000 years ago - 35,000 years before paintings, 12,000 more for writing - Cognitive develops, not only structure matters - Language = “the jewel in the crown of cognition” o Evolved as humans gathered to form larger social units o Ability to form cooperative social systems, develop social customs, communicate thoughts to others, create divisions of labour, and pass on knowledge and wisdom made easier by language o Adaptive value of language so brain has capacity to learn The Nature and Structure of Language - Language consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages or meanings o .: language = symbolic: uses sounds, written signs, gestures to refer to things  Form and transfer mental representations  Linguistic feature displacement: fact that past, future, imaginary events and objects that are not physically present can be symbolically represented and communicated through the medium of language .: NOT RESTRICTED TO PRESENT o Language has structure: rules governing how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication units  May not be able to verbalize rules, but know implicitly because part of language we speak o Language is generative: symbols can be combined to generate an almost infinite number of messages  Forming mental image of random sentence exhibits displacement Surface and Deep Structure - Psycholinguists: study psychological properties of language and underlying mechanisms that produce it o Surface structure: consists of the way symbols are combined within a given language  Rules for such combinations are syntax (rules of grammar) of a language o Deep structure: refers to underlying meaning of combined symbols  Rules for connecting symbols to what they represent = semantics o Both in long-term memory o More likely to remember meaning than specifics Language from the Bottom Up - Human language has hierarchical structure - Phonemes = smallest unit of sound recognized as separate in given language o English has 46 (vowel sounds, consonant sounds, letter combinations th and sh) o E.g. sounds h a t combined to 3-phoneme word hat o Humans can make 100s, don’t use all. Some have 15, some 80, most 40-50 - Phonemes combined to morphemes = smallest units of meaning o E.g. hat, sick, tel , prefixes and suffixes (-ous morpheme made of 2 phonemes uh and s o Syntax rules determine how phonemes can be made to morphemes o 46 English phonemes  100,000 morphemes  ½ million words  phrases  infinite sentences Acquiring a Language - Biological readiness to recognize and eventually produce sounds and structure of whatever language exposed to? Biological Foundations - Support for biological basis for language acquisition, bio primed within learning environment = growth o Kids have limited thinking skills but begin to master language early in life without formal instruction o All adult languages (despite differences, independent creations including sign language) appear to have common underlying deep structure - 1-3 months infants vocalize entire range of phonemes found in world’s language = cooing (coo sounds when happy) - 6 months, make native tongue sounds; discard other tongue sounds = babbling stage of language development o Lose ability to perceive difference in sounds of other languages (e.g. Japanese kids can’t “r” and “l” differentiate) o Vocalizations become more and more similar to exposed language o Sign language babies babble with heads o Some complex rules of syntax (Japanese: object before verb; English other way) - Sensitive period during which language most easily learned = infancy to puberty (includes sign language) o Support: kids found before vs after puberty, recovery from brain damage before vs after Sex differences. - Language functions distributed all over, but some special o Broca’s area in left hemisphere frontal lobe = speech production/formation o Wernicke’s area in rear temporal lobe = speech comprehension/understanding o Damage in one or both areas (BFF WUT) = aphasia (disruption in speech comprehension and/or production) o Visual area also involved in recognizing written words - Stroke victims (men vs women) show that women more than men have more language lateralization (men left hemisphere damage = less speech recovery) Social Learning Processes - Social learning crucial in acquiring language o E.g. parents maintain child interest by motherese (high pitched intonation) - Skinner said operant conditioning explanation for language acquisition (reinforce appropriate, not inappropriate verbalization) o But kids learn too much too fast  30 months, 100s words  6 yrs, 15 words / day; 8000-14000 words - Parents reinforce “truth value” vs grammar (“3 feet” but not “2 foots”) .: not imitation, social learning not everything - Bio factors (+ speech producing mechanisms) and experience combine, common timetable for all cultures o 1-3 months: distinguish speech from nonspeech, prefer speech sounds (phonemes); crying vs happy cooing o 4-6 months: babbling, sounds from every language. Vocalizes in response to others o 7-11 months: babbling  phonemes from environment, tongue with vocalization (“lalling”), differentiates words (not meaning), imitates word sounds o 12 months: first words, usually 1 word name for person/thing o 12-18 months: more word meanings, use single words for phrase (e.g. “out”); nouns o 18-24 months: 50-100 word vocab; basic sentences without articles/conjunctions/auxiliary verbs   Telegraphic speech = noun + verb, 2 word sentences o 2-4 years: 100s words / 6 months, longer sentences (grammar incorrect), basic syntax; concepts/descriptions expressed with words o 4-5 years: basic grammar to meaningful sentences Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language - Famous people: M.D. Berlitz, Sir John Bowring (Hong Kong), Benjamin Schulze (prayer) - Best learned during childhood, e.g. grammar mastery in English harder past 7 o Kids sometimes get confused, but after about 2 coding mixing is not an issue - Study of bilingualism important for Canada  French immersion now popular in Canada (started in St. Lampert, Quebec, worked with Wally Lambert @ McGill, first 1965, now 300,000+) - First bilingual learning 2 sets grammar/vocab = worse; but do same on monolingual tests o Superior cognitive processing o Better at reading, better controlling attention, greater flexibility in thinking, standardized intelligence tests - Areas of brain  before 10 = same; after 10 (less proficient in 2 language) = different (PET scans) Linguistic Influences on Thinking - Benjamin Lee Whorf (1965)  linguistic relativity hypothesis: language DETERMINES what we are capable of thinking o E.g. no past tense in language, can’t remember past o Wrong, e.g. Eleanor Rosch with Dani of New Guinea, 2 colour words but observe all - Language influences how we think, efficiently categorize experiences, how much detail we attend to, colour perceptions/conclusions o E.g. gender stereotypes, .: language helps create and maintain them - Language influencing what and how we think = important, because how we encode info affects perception/memory o Vocab expands, thinking more sophisticated ways. ,: vocab development key to education - Language also affects how we think in certain domains o E.g. Asian > English in math  e.g. Chinese numbers easier .: Asian facilitates math skill development, English hinders - Thought includes wide range of mental activities, enter abilities to reason, solve problems, engage in forms of “intelligent” behaviour o Propositional thought: expresses proposition / statement – verbal sentences what we “hear” in mind o Imaginal thought: images we “see” “hear” or “feel” in mind o Motoring thought: relates to mental representation of motor movements, e.g. throwing Concepts and Propositions - Propositions: statements that express facts, most thinking o Combination of concepts (subject, predicate): basic units of semantic memory – mental categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions, events that have things in common  Acquired through instruction or observation  Difficult to define explicitly i.e. define “vegetable” vs think of e.g.  Eleanor Rosch (1977) = concepts defined by prototypes – typical/familiar member of class o Decide what category based on resemblance to prototype o Basic form of concepts, only similarities  prototypes from experience, .: concepts differ between individuals o How we state about problems/decisions influence how we solve problem, reason to decision, or make judgement  Greater cost to negative outcomes as value to positive **Levels of Analysis: p. 345 Research Frontiers – Can Animals Acquire Language - Noam Chomsky: language = “human essence” - Other animals communicate (e.g. bird call for predator warning) - Taught chimps o Positive  Allen and Beatrice Gardner  10 month Washoe, ASL, age 5 160 signs  Lana, lexigrams  Chantek (orangutan), symbols  Koko (gorilla), 600 signs o Negative  Terrace  Nim Chimpsky, fail o Kanzi : 80 geometric symbols, 1.5 years = combinations - Apes can’t talk because of bio, but can acquire vocabulary **In Review: p. 347 REASONING AND PROBLEM SOLVING - Intelligent thinking = reasoning, logic - Trial and error = primitive problem solving; reasoning avoids hazard and time Reasoning - Deductive reasoning: “top down”, general principles to conclusion about specific case o Start with set of premises (propositions assumed to be true, factual statements) o Determine what they imply about specific situations o Basis for math and logic  Stronger more valid because conclusions CANNOT BE FALSE if premises are true o Underlying deductive principle: given proposition, IF X THEN Y o deductive argument = syllogism - Inductive reasoning: “bottom up”, specific facts try to develop general principle o E.g. scientists making general principles/laws from observing several specifics (apples on head  gravity, Pavlov dog salivate  classic conditioning) - DEDUCTIVE = true fosho; INDUCTIVE = likelihood rather than certainty o Both used different times o INDUCTIVE for psychologists, scientists, diagnose/initially explain  After IND, DED in if -then hypothesis to test  hypothetico-deductive approach Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning - Distraction by irrelevant information. Relevancy is challenging, irrelevant can lead astray and make things more difficult - Failure to apply deductive rules. knowledge not enough, wisdom of when and how to apply knowledge is needed o E.g. math kids learn formula in general, can apply to physics; physics kids can’t apply it to other areas - Belief bias. Belief bias = tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefs. o E.g. smoking good health, cigs smoked, cigs good health = LOGICAL o Many confuse factual correctness with logical correctness Problem Solving - 4 Stages: o 1 = interpret (frame) and understand problem o 2 = Generate hypotheses or possible solutions o 3 = Test solutions, hypotheses, seeking to disconfirm one or more of them o 4 = Evaluate results and, if necessary, revise steps 1,2, or 3 Understand, or Framing, the Problem - How we mentally represent (or frame) problem makes difference – e.g. unsolvable problem thought about differently makes it easy o E.g. bird in between trains Generating Potential Solutions - After interpret, formulate potential solutions/explanations o 1) determine which procedures/explanations will be considered o 2) determine which solutions consistent with evidence; rule out solutions not fitting Testing the Solutions - Check remaining solutions, look for test that differentiates - Abraham Luchins (1942): water jug example, mental set = tendency to stick to solutions which worked in past  can be inefficient Evaluating Results - Ask if easier / more effective way to accomplish same objective Problem-Solving Schemas - Shortcut problem-solving methods that apply to specific situations - Problem-solving schemas: like mental blueprints, step-by-step scripts for selecting info and solving specialized classes of problems o E.g. cooking, studying  once we master, we “know what to do” instead of step-by-step formal problem solving each time - Schemas explain what it means to be an expert  e.g. chess masters, Gary Kasparov o Experts develop schemas from experience, develop many to guide problem solving, much better at recognizing when schema should be applied  problem solving quick and effective o Experts have schemas in spacious long-term memory, .: analyze problem, retrieval cues, apply; novices use working memory - Development of expertise accompanied by alterations in brain functioning; for animals too Algorithms and Heuristics - Algorithms: formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions o E.g math and chemical formulae  use them right, always get right answer o Can be time consuming (e.g. anagram) - Heuristics: general problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations o Mental shortcuts that help, compare present with seemingly applicable concept/schema o E.g. means-ends analysis: identify differences between present and desired state/goal, make changes to reduce differences  Includes another heuristic subgoal analysis: attack larger problem by smaller steps  Smaller, manageable tasks with subgoal leading to ultimate goal  E.g. Hanoi tower o Affect judgements, decisions, contribute to errors Uncertainty, Heuristics, and Decision Making - Few decisions made with certainty that comes from applying math formula - Hope for decision with highest probability of positive outcome - .: apply certain heuristics to form judgements o E.g. about people  Tversky and Kahneman example of 31 year old Linda (bank teller example)  Certain heuristics underlie much of our inductive decision making (conclusion from facts), misuse = thinking errors  The representativeness heuristic. “what does it look/seem like”, 1 thing perceptual system answers when processing stimuli o Use this heuristic to infer how closely something/someone fits our prototype for particular concept/class, .: how likely it is part of class (“how likely this represents class”) o Leads to faulty logic  e.g. logical principle that combination of 2 events cannot be more likely than either event alone o Confuse representativeness with probability  The availability heuristic. Causes us to base judgements and decisions on availability of info in memory o We remember most important things to us, usually good as important is ready to be applied, but if easy to think about exaggerate likelihood of occurring  E.g. Jaws, 9/11 Confirmation Bias - Sometimes, challenging problem-solving tasks is obtaining new evidence to test hypothesis/solution - Rationally, best to seek evidence to DISCONFIRM instead of solidify, because rules out/causes us to change ideas  ensures cannot be true, instead of true FOR NOW - People hold on to beliefs  confirmation bias: tend to look for confirming evidence not disconfirming o Present even if not related to beliefs e.g. card game o E.g. seek, elicit, recall feedback about selves that confirms own beliefs Psychological Applications – Guidelines for Creative Problem Solving - Experience important, heuristics and schemas - Divergent thinking: generation of novel ideas that depart from the norm o Apply concepts or propositions across unrelated domains, no tradition, etc o People prevented by functional fixedness: tendency to be fixed in perception of proper function of object/procedure that blinded to new ways of using it - Incubation: name given sudden flash of insight, as problem has been “incubating” subconsciously - Sometimes best to put aside, let biases / mental sets dissipate, new idea emerge, new stimuli might activate new perspective - General problem solving tips: o Seen before? Modify then apply schemas o Test ideas – try to disconfirm. o Don’t confuse representativeness with probability o Means-ends problem solving heuristic o Pencil and paper – use orderly notes and schematics; substitute limited working memory, increase info at hand INTELLIGENCE - Intelligence: concept/construct that refers to ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, and deal adaptively to environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability - English cousin of Darwin, influenced by Evolution, Hereditary Genius (1896)  intelligence across generations in families o “inherited mental constitutions” ; ignored privileged environments o Tried to prove by setting up lab tests to measure nervous system efficiency  but tests unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability like academic/occupational success o Set the stage, sparked interest Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests - Intelligence movement began turn of 20 century, French Alfred Binet  PRACTICAL research, identify kids unable to benefit from normal school - 2 assumptions in developing his tests: o Mental abilities develop with age o Rate of gain constant (.: lagging at age 5 still lagging age 10) - Mental age o German William Stern’s intelligence quotient (IQ): IQ = (Mental age / chronological age) x 100 o Problems, no longer used:  development slows dramatically after 16  doesn’t work for adults – age 40 not double intelligence to 20  intellectual skills can decline at advanced ages  people getting smarter  recalibrate IQ so average is 100.  .: IQ score relative to larger s
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit