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Chapter 8 Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 8 Notes Memory as Information Processing Memory: the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information The Three-Component Model Encoding: getting information into the system by translating it into neural code that your brain processes Storage: retaining information over time; once in the system information must be filed away and saved Retrieval: process of pulling information out of storage when we want to use it  The above model proposes that memory has three major components: sensory memory, short- term or ‘working’ memory, and long-term memory; the components may involve interrelated neural sites Sensory memory: holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized; it is composed of different subsystems, called sensory registers, which are the initial information processors; our visual sensory register is called the iconic store  The time course for visual sensory memory is very brief; it is difficult to retain complete information in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a second  The auditory sensory register, called the echoic store lasts longer than iconic memory- nearly complete echoic trace may last about two seconds and a partial trace may linger for several more Short-term memory: holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time; also referred to as working memory because it consciously processes, codes, and ‘works on’ information Memory codes: take various forms; mental representations that help us for a mental image (visual encoding), code for something by sound (phonological encoding play an important role in short-term memory), or focus on the meaning of a stimulus (semantic encoding); we also learn physical actions and code for movement (motor encoding)  Short-term memory can hold only a limited amount of information at a time; most people can hold no more than five to nine meaningful items in short-term memory leading to ‘the magical number seven, plus or minus two  The limit on short-term memory capacity concerns the number of meaningful units that can be recalled; combining individual items into larger units of meaning is called chunking  Without rehearsal, the ‘shelf-life’ of information in short-term memory is indeed short, around 20 seconds; by rehearsing information, we can extend its duration in short-term memory indefinitely Maintenance rehearsal: simple repetition of information Elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already know  Both types of rehearsal keep information active in short-term memory, but elaborative rehearsal is more effective in transferring information into long-term memory, which is more permanent  The original three-stage model focuses on short-term memory primarily as a loading platform or holding station for information along th route from sensory to long-term memory ; however, many cognitive scientists now reject this view as too passive- instead, they view short-term memory as a working memory that actively and simultaneously processes different types of information and supports other cognitive functions, such as problem solving and planning, and interacts with long-term memory  One model divides working memory into four components: o We maintain some information in an auditory working memory (the phonological loop), such as when you repeat a phone number o Second, visual-spatial working memory (the visuospatial sketch pad) allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial information , as when forming mental maps of the route to some destination o Third, the episodic buffer provides temporary storage space where information from long-term memory and from the phonological loop/visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated, and made available for conscious awareness o Finally, a control process, called the central executive, directs/decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, and it calls up information from long-term memory, and integrates the input Long-term memory: our vast library of more durable stored memories Serial position effect: recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series f items; it has two components: a primacy effect, reflecting the superior recall of early words, and a recency effect, representing the superior recall of the most recent words Encoding: Entering Information  The more effectively we encode material into long-term memory, the greater the likelihood of retrieving it Effortful and Automatic Processing  Effortful processing is encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention; rehearsing, making lists, and taking class notes are illustrations of this  Automatic processing encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention- information about the frequency, spatial location, sequence, and timing of events often is encoded automatically Levels of Processing: When Deeper is Better Levels of processing: concept developed by Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart that states, the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered Exposure and Rehearsal  To learn factual and conceptual information presented in most academic or job settings, we need to employ effortful, deep processing- simple repeated exposure to a stimulus without stopping to think about it represents shallow processing  Maintenance rehearsal is most useful for keeping information active in short-term, working memory, and it may help transfer some information into long-term memory however, it is an inefficient method for bringing about long-term transfer  Elaborative rehearsal focuses on the meaning of information- we elaborate on the material by organizing information, thinking about how it applies to our own lives, and relating it to concepts or examples we already know illustrate such elaboration involves deeper processing and should be more effective in transferring information into long-term memory Organization and Imagery  Imposing organization on a set of stimuli is an excellent way to enhance memory; an organizational scheme can enhance the meaningfulness of information and also serve as a cue that helps to trigger our memory for information it represents  Organizing material in a hierarchy takes advantage of the principle that memory is enhanced by associations between concepts; a logical hierarchy enhances our understanding of how these diverse elements are related as we proceed from top to bottom on a hierarch o each category can serve as a cue that triggers our memory for the associated items below it o chinking refers to combining individual items into a larger unit of meaning, and it widens the information-processing bottleneck caused by the limited capacity of short-term memory  A mnemonic device is any type of memory aid; some examples are hierarchies, chunking, acronyms o However, when learning new material, mnemonic decides do not reduce the amount of raw information you have to encode into memory; rather, they reorganize information into more meaningful units and provide extra cues to help you retrieve information from long-term memory Dual coding theory: Allan Paivio said that information is stored in long-term memory in two forms: verbal codes and non-verbal codes; encoding information using both codes enhances memory, because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall  The method of loci, developed by the Greeks, is an effective and well-known imagery technique: to use this, imagine a physical environment with a sequence of distinct landmarks, such as the rooms in a house or places on campus- to remember a list, take an imaginary stroll through this environment and form an image linking each place with an item or concept How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding  Long-term memory is densely populated with semantic codes that represent the meaning of information; we form a mental representation that captures the essential meaning of that event Schema: a ‘mental framework’; an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world, such as a class of people, events; we form schemas through experience, and they can strongly influence the way we encode material in memory they create a perceptual set, which is a readiness to perceive- to organize and interpret- information in a certain way  In music as in other fields, acquiring expert knowledge can be viewed as a process of developing schemas- mental frameworks- that help to encode information into meaningful patters Storage: Retaining Information Memory as a Network Associative network: a massive network of associated ideas and concepts; each concept or unit of information is represented by a node- the lines in a network represent associations between concepts, with shorter lines indicating stronger associations  Alan Collis and Elizabeth Loftus theorize that when people think about a concept, there is a spreading activation of related concepts throughout the network Priming: the activation of one concept (or one unit of information) by another  The neural network approach provides a different model of memory and cognition; this network has nodes that are linked to one another, but these nodes are physical in nature and do not contain individual units of information o Each node is more like a small information-processing unit Neural network: each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously  As a multitude of nodes distributed throughout the brain fire in parallel at each instant and spread their activation to other nodes, concepts and information are retrieved and thoughts arise  Neural network models are often called parallel distributed processing models (PDP) Types of Long-Term Memory  We possess several long-term memory systems that interact with one another Declarative memory: involves factual knowledge and includes two subcategories:  Episodic memory: our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences when, where, and what happened in the episodes of our lives  Semantic memory: represents general factual knowledge about the world and language including memory for words and concepts; you know Mt Everest is the tallest peak Procedural memory (non-declarative): reflected in skills and actions; consists of skills that are expressed by ‘doing things’ in particular situations, such as typing, riding a bicycle, etc  Classically conditioned responses also reflect procedural memory Explicit memory: involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval; recognition requires us to decide whether a stimulus is familiar  Recall involves spontaneous memory retrieval, in the sense that you must retrieve the target stimuli or information on your own  A cued recall is when hints are given to stimulate memory Implicit memory: memory influences our behaviour without conscious awareness  Primitive tasks are when one is given words, and then a year later given the starting letters of the work- those who saw the beginning words a year before will be more likely to write down those words rather than others Retrieval: Accessing Information Retrieval cue: any stimulus, whether internal or external, that simulates the activation of information stored in long-term memory The Value of Multiple and Self-Generated Cues  Having multiple, self-generated retrieval cues was the most effective approach to maximizing recall o This is because, on the encoding side, generating our own associations involves deeper, more elaborative rehearsal than does being presented with associations generated by someone else o On the retrieval side, these self-generated associations become cues that have personal meaning The Value of Distinctiveness  In general, distinctive stimuli are better remembered than non-distinctive ones; this also applies to the events in our lives Flashbulb memories: recollections that seem so vivid, so clear, that we can picture them as if they were a snapshot of a moment in time; they are most likely to occur for distinctive, positive or negative events that evoke strong emotional reactions  Overall, confidence and accuracy are weakly related; Context, State, and Mood Effects on Memory Encoding specificity principle: memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding; this enhancement occurs because stimuli associated with an event may become encoded as part of the memory and later serve as retrieval cues Context-dependent memory: external cues; it is typically easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was acquired State-dependent memory: our ability to retrieve information is greater when our internal state at the time of retrieval matches our original state during learning  This is why experiments examining alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, barbiturates, nicotine, caffeine, antihistamines, and other drugs have often found that information recall is poorer when there is a mismatch between the person’s state during learning and testing  Mood-dependent memory is not a reliable phenomenon, although researchers continue to study; instead, there is consistent evidence of mood-congruent recall Mood-congruent recall: we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood; this likelihood helps to perpetuate our mood and may be one factor that maintains depression once people have entered a depressed state Forgetting The Course of For
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