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Chapter 8 Notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 8MemoryMemory refers to the processes that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information Amnesia memory lossMemory As Information ProcessingThe mind is a processing system that encodes stores and retrieves informationEncoding refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes Storage involves retaining information over time Retrieval pull information out of storage when we want to use it We routinely forget and distort information and remember events that never occurredA ThreeComponent ModelThree major components of memory1Sensory memory2Shorttermworking memory3LongTerm MemorySensory MemorySensory memory holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized SubsystemsSensory registers initial information processorsIconic register visual sensory registerEchoic store auditory sensory registerShortTermWorking MemoryShortterm memory holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time Shortterm memory is also referred to as working memory because it consciously processes codes and works on information Memory CodesMemory codes visual phonological semantic or motor encoding that stores information so it can be retained in shortterm and longterm memoryVisual form a mental imagePhonological code something by soundSemantic focus on the meaning of a stimulusMotor code patterns of movementCapacity DurationShort term memory capacity is limitedThe limit on shortterm memory capacity concerns the number of meaningful units that can be recalled Chunking combining individual items into larger units of meaningShortterm memory is limited in duration as well as capacityThe info in shortterm memory is perhaps 20 secondsRehearsing information can extend its duration in shortterm memory indefinitelyMaintenance rehearsal simple repetition of information Elaborative rehearsal involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other things we already knowElaborate rehearsal is more effective in transferring information into longterm memoryPutting ShortTerm Memory To WorkItems that remain in shortterm memory long enough such as through maintenance rehearsal eventually gets transferred into the longterm memoryMany scientists view shortterm memory as a working memory that actively and simultaneously processes different types of information and supports other cognitive functions problem solving and planning and interacts with longterm memory Working memory is divided into 4 componentsoPhonological loop we maintain some information in an auditory working memoryoVisual sketchpad visual spatial working memory allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images and spatial informationoEpisodic buffer provides temporary storage space where information from longterm memory and from phonological loop andor visuospatial subsystem can be integrated manipulated and made available for conscious awareness oCentral executive control process that directs the action It decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal calls up information from longterm memory and integrates the input LongTerm MemoryLongterm memory is our vast library of more durable stored memories Longterm memory storage capacity essentially is unlimited Once formed a longterm memory can endure for up to a lifetimeSerial position effect Words at the beginning and the end of a list are the easiest for participants to recall Recall is influenced by a words position in a series of items The serial effect has 2 componentsoPrimary effect reflecting the superior recall of early words due to the transfer of early words into longterm memoryoRecency effect representing the superior recall of most recent words the last few words have the benefit of not being bummed out of shortterm memory by any new information
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