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Psychology 1000

Chapter 11 Motivation and Emotion Motivation: process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour. Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology Instinct: an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus. • Instincts have a genetic basis Homeostasis and Drive Theory Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain. 1. Response system (restores equilibrium) 2. Control centre (receives information from the sensors and activates the response system) Drive theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension. Incentive and Expectancy Theories Incentives: environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal (e.g. a good grade would be an incentive to a student). Expectancy x value theory: proposes that goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal-often called incentive value (Motivation=expectancy x incentive value). Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment. Intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake-because you find it enjoyable or stimulating. Overjustification hypothesis: giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation. Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories Freud’s theory: • Behaviour results from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defences used to keep them under control. Today’s theory: • Conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel. Deficiency needs: concerned with physical and social survival. Growth needs: uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential. Need of hierarchy (concept): a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top. Self-actualization: the need to fulfill our potential and it is the ultimate human motive (“be all that you can be”). Self-determination theory: focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Competence motivation: reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills. This need motivates much exploratory and growth-inducing human behaviour. Autonomy and Relatedness: • Autonomy: is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference. • Relatedness: refers to our desire to form meaningful bonds with others. o The two complement each other. o When true relatedness is achieved, people often feel freer to be themselves. o Adolescents who feel that their autonomy is acknowledged and supported by their parents feel strong sense of relatedness to their parents. Hunger and Weight Regulation The Psychology of Hunger Metabolism: the body’s rate of energy utilization, and about two-thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells. Signals That Start and Terminate a Meal Glucose: a simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel. • Some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy • Large portion of glucose is transferred into the liver and fat cells, where it is converted into other nutrients and stored for later use. • When blood glucose levels are low, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose. Satiety signals: • Stomach and intestinal distention o The walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain. o Nutritionally rich food seems to produce satiety more quickly than an equal volume of less nutritious food. Therefore, some satiety signals respond to food content. o Patients who have had their stomach removed continue to have satiety signals because of intestinal distention. The Intestines • Respond to food by releasing several hormones, called peptides, that help terminate the meal. o CCK (cholecystokinin): released into the bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach. It stimulates regions of the brain that decreases eating. Signals That Regulate General Appetite and Weight Leptin: a hormone that decreases appetite. • As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain. Leptin signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. • It does not make us feel full like CCK, leptin regulates appetite by increasing the potency of these other signals. • High leptin levels may tell the brain “There is plenty of fat tissue, so it’s time to eat less”. Brain Mechanisms Lateral hypothalamus= “hunger on” centre • Stimulation of LH will cause someone to eat • Lesioning of LH will cause someone to refuse to eat (to the point of starvation) • LH damage causes a trouble swallowing and digesting, and one becomes unresponsive to external stimuli (not just food). Ventromedial hypothalamus= “hunger off” centre • Stimulating VMH will cause someone who is hungry to stop eating • Lesioning VMH will produce glutons who ate frequently and doubled or triples their body weight. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite. • PVN Y is a powerful appetite stimulant • When leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it seems to inhibit the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, and therefore appetite is reduced. • When there is a loss of fat, less leptin is secreted and therefore neuropeptide Y neurons become more active, increasing appetite. Psychological Aspects of Hunger • Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs regulate food intake • “don’t leave food on your plate” and “autopilot” snacking while watching TV • Food restriction in women stems from social pressure Objectification theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would. Environment and Cultural Factors Environmental regulators of eating: 1. Food availability: food scarcity limits consumption, and abundant low-cost food contributes to high rate of obesity. 2. Food taste and variety: good-tasting food positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption, and food variety increases consumption. 3. Smell and sight of food: when your nose detects the sensuous aroma we desire food even if we aren’t hungry. 4. Presence of other: we typically eat more when dining with others because meals take longer. 5. Cultural norms: influence when, how, and what we eat. The time that is “normal” to eat dinner varies from society to society. 6. Familiarity of food: we feel more comfortable eating foods we are familiar with. Obesity Genes and Environment Genes • Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue. • Genetic factors account for 40-70% of the variation in body mass among women and men. Environment • An abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high-fat foods available almost everywhere • A cultural emphasis on “getting the best value”, which contributes to the “supersizing” of menu items • Technological advances that decrease the need for daily physical activity encourages a sedentary lifestyle. Frontiers Excessive Exercise: Activity Anorexia If a rat is allowed limited access to food and unlimited access to a running wheel except during the meal period, a condition called activity anorexia develops. Over days, animals with access to running wheel engage in increasing amounts of running; they eat less, lose weight, and, if left in the situation will starve. • Animals developed CTA (conditioned taste aversion) to novel (new) food, but did not to familiar food. Applications The Battle to Control Eating and Weight • The smell, sight, and even sound of a favorite food can stimulate the release of the hormone insulin. Insulin stimulates the transfer of glucose from the blood into the cells of the body, and an increase in insulin leads to rapid drop in blood glucose levels. • Weight loss through diet is due to a loss of both lean body mass and fat, whereas weight loss through exercise is due to a loss of fat. • If weight is lost through exercise, there is a consequent increase in the ratio of muscle to fat, and that generally leads to an increase in basal metabolic rate. Heightened basal metabolism will help to burn calories, even when you are not exercising. Sexual Motivation The Psychology of Sex Sexual response cycle: four-stage cycle 1. Excitement phase: arousal build rapidly, blood flow increases to arteries in and around the genital organs, nipples, and women’s breasts, pooling and causing these body areas to swell (this process is called vasocongestion). The penis and clitoris begin to become erect, the vagine becomes lubricated, and muscle tension increases throughout the body. 2. Plateau phase: respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm. 3. Orgasm phase: in males, rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen out of the penis. In females, orgasms involves rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus. 4. Resolution phase: In males, physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition. During the resolution phase, males enter a refractory period during which they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm. Females may have two or more successive orgasms before the onset of the resolution phase. Hormonal Influences • The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland, which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins. These hormones affect the rate at which the gonads secrete androgens (testosterone) and estrogens. • Organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics. • Activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour. Sexual Fantasy • Sexual fantasies alone may trigger genital erection and orgasm in some people. Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction • Psychological factors can contribute and inhibit sexual arousal • Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can lead to temporary arousal problems. • Sexual dysfunction: chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person. It may result from injuries, diseases, and drug effects, but some causes are psychological. Cultural and Environmental Influences Predicting pornography’s effects: • Social learning theory: people learn through observation. • Catharsis principle: as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release this tension provide a “catharsis” that temporarily returns us to a more balanced physiological state. • Violent pornography increases men’s aggressive behaviour toward women. • Pornography promotes that sex is impersonal and decreases vieweers’ satisfaction with their own sexual partners. • The belief that sex is impersonal contributes to rape. Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation: one’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex. Determinants of Sexual Orientation • No particular phenomenon of family life can be singled out for either homosexual or heterosexual development • The closer the genetic relatedness, the higher the concordance rates for sexual orientation • Some believe, the brain develops a neural pattern that predisposes organisms to prefer either female or male sex patterns • Some believe, altering prenatal exposure to sex hormones can influence sexual orientation. • There is no clear evidence that prenatal sex hormones directly affect human sexual orientation. • It is possible that heredity affects sexual orientation only indirectly by influencing children’s basic personality style. Achievement Motivation Need for achievement: represents the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence. It is a relatively stable personality characteristic that energizes and guides our achievement behaviour. Motivation for Success: The Thrill of Victory People thrive to succeed for two different reasons: 1. Motive for success • Mastery goals: reflect intrinsic motivation (“I want to learn as much as possible from this class” and “I prefer course material that arouses my curiosity, even if it is difficult to learn”) • Performance goals: involve social comparison (“I am motivated by thought of outperforming my peers in this cla
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