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Lecture

Chapter 7 Key Terms

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7 Key Terms Anticipatory nausea and vomiting (ANV): classically conditioned nausea and vomiting that occur when cancer patients are exposed to stimuli associated with their treatment Applied behaviour analysis: a process (also called behaviour modification) in which operant conditioning is combined with scientific data collection to solve individual and societal problems Aversion therapy: the pairing of a CS that currently evokes a positive but maladaptive response with a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition repulsion toward the CS Avoidance conditioning: the conditioning of an organism to perform a response to avoid an undesirable consequence Chaining: an operant conditioning procedure used to develop a sequence (chain) of response by reinforcing each response with the opportunity to perform the next response Classical conditioning: a procedure in which a formerly neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) comes to elicit a conditioned response by virtue of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus that naturally elicits a similar response ( the unconditioned response) Cognitive map: a mental representation of the spatial layout of an area Conditioned response (CR): in classical conditioning, a response to a conditioned stimulus; the CR is established by pairing a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus that evokes a similar response Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus that comes to evoke a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned taste aversion: a learned repulsion to a food that formerly was neutral or desired, by virtue of pairing the food with an aversive UCS (e.g. nausea, stomach illness) Continuous reinforcement schedule: a reinforcement schedule in which each correct response is followed by reinforcement Delay of gratification: the ability to forgo immediate rewards for delayed but more satisfying outcomes Discrimination (classical conditioning): the occurrence of a CR to one stimulus but not to another stimulus Discriminative stimulus: an antecedent stimulus that signals the likelihood of certain consequences if a response is made Escape conditioning: a form of learning in which the organism learns to perform a behaviour to escape from an aversive stimulus Exposure therapies: a therapeutic technique designed to extinguish anxiety responses by exposing clients to anxiety-arousing stimuli or situations while preventing escape or avoidance through response prevention Extinction (classical conditioning): weakening and eventual cessation of CR caused by the presentation of the CS without the UCS Extinction (operant conditioning): occurs when the absence of reinforcement for a previously reinforced response causes that response to weaken and eventually to stop Fixed-interval (FI) schedule: a reinforcement schedule in which the first correct response occurring after a constant time interval is reinforced Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule: a reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is given after a constant number of correct responses Habituation: a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus Higher-order conditioning: in classical conditioning, when a neutral stimulus becomes a CS after it is paired with another CS (rather than with the original UCS) Insight: in Gestalt psychology, the sudden perception of a useful relationship or a solution to a problem; in psychoanalysis, the conscious awareness of unconscious dynamics that underlie psychological problems Instinctive drift: the tendency for innate behaviours to override a conditioning procedure, thus making it difficult to create or maintain a conditioned response Latent learning: learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement, but which is not displayed until reinforcement is later introd
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