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Psych1000- Chapter 10; Motivation and Emotion.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Erica Lawson
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion The term “motivation” often triggers images of people who persevere to attain their dreams and stretch the boundaries of human achievement. Motivation is a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour. PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology  Instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus.  Have a genetic basis, do not depend on learning  By conducting twin and adoption studies, behaviour geneticist seek to establish how strongly heredity accounts for differences among people in many aspects of motivated behaviour, such as tendencies to be outgoing or anti social o Student reading books, playing sports, riding roller coasters  Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many “psychological” motives have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through the actions of genes  From this perspective, the adaptive significance of behaviour is a key to understanding motivation o Why are we social creatures?  shared resources, protection etc, Homeostasis and Drive Theory  Homeostasis is a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain  Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activated the response system  Homeostatic regulation can also involve learned behaviours  When were hot we not only perspire, but also may seek a shady place or a cool drink  Drive Theory of motivation, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension o Hunger and thirst arise from tissue deficits  Less influential than in the past o People behave in ways that increase rather than reduce states of arousal  skipping meals in order to diet Incentive and Expectancy Theories  Whereas drives are viewed as internal factors that “push” organisms into action, incentives represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal  Incentive theories focus attention on external stimuli  Clark Hull argued that all reinforcement involves some kind of biological drive reduction (e.g., food is an incentive because it reduces the drive of hunger), but this view is no longer held  Modern incentive theory emphasizes the “pull” of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need o Finish a meal and be full, but eat dessert in the absence of a biological need  Incentive theories of motivation have also been powerfully applied to the study of drug abuse  Seeking and administering a drug is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drug’s effect  Incentive theories have had more in common with classical conditioning than with cognition, but expectancy theory has broken from this tradition and given a larger role to cognition.  Expectancy X value theory, proposes that goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal—often called incentive value  These two factors are multiplied, producing the following equation: motivation = expectancy x incentive value o James works hard because she believes it will get him an A, and he values it highly o Harrison believes working hard will get him an A, but values it lowly  Can external incentives ever decrease motivation?  Many cognitive theorists distinguish between: o extrinsic motivation performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment o intrinsic motivation, performing an activity for its own sake—because you find it enjoyable  According to the over justification hypothesis, giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “over justify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation  If we begin to perceive that we are performing for the extrinsic rewards rather than for enjoyment, the rewards will turn “play” into “work,” and it might be difficult to return to “play” if those rewards were to cease  Extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic motivation most strongly when they are tangible and when the performer expects rewards to be offered.  When extrinsic rewards such as praise are perceived as informative, as a means of positive feedback, they can increase feelings of competence and intrinsic motivation. Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories  Freud’s (1923) psychoanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld  To Freud, much of our behaviour results from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defences used to keep them under control  Energy from these unconscious motives are disguised and expressed through socially acceptable behaviours  Today’s psychodynamic theories emphasize that along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel o Supported by cognitive psychology and neuroscience o Cognitive and perceptual processes outside of conscious awareness share no real common ground  Unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel  Humanist Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s other perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth  He distinguished between deficiency needs, which are concerned with physical and social survival, and growth needs, which are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential  He proposed the concept of need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top o Basic physiological needs, safety and security, love needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, self actualization  Self-actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential, and it is the ultimate human motive  “Be all that you can be”  how does the hierarchy explain why million of women live in constant hunger in order to be thin? HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION The Physiology of Hunger  Metabolism is the body’s rate of energy (or caloric) utilization, and about two-thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells  Several mechanisms attempt to keep the body in energy homeostasis by regulating food intake  There are “short-term” signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety (the state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating)  Your body also monitors “long-term” signals based on how much body fat you have  These signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in the short term Consider three points:  1. Many of us believe that hunger occurs when we begin to run low on energy and that we feel full when immediate energy supplies are restored  Hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs  2. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from “running low” on energy in the first place  3. Many researchers believe that there is a set point—an internal physiological standard—around which body weight (or more accurately, our fat mass) is regulated  homeostatic mechanisms will return us to our original weight  As we gain or lose weight, homeostatic mechanisms kick in and make it harder to keep gaining or losing weight, but do not necessarily return us to our original weight  Over time, we may “settle in” at a new weight Signals That Start and Terminate a Meal  Washburn: o Swallowed a balloon. When it was inflated, it recorded his stomach contracts. o The contracts did correspond to subjective feelings of hunger  Hunger “pangs” do not depend on an empty stomach. o Animals display hunger when the nerves form their stomach and brain are cut or when people have their stomach surgically removed.  When you eat, digestive enzymes break food down into various nutrients  Once key nutrient is glucose, a simple sugar that is the body’s (and especially the brain’s) major source of immediately useable fuel  After a meal, some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy, but a large portion is transferred to your liver and fat cells, where it is converted into other nutrients and stored for later use  Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations  When blood glucose levels decrease, the liver response to converting stored nutrients back into glucose  This produces a drop-rise glucose pattern  Humans and rats display a temporary drop-rise glucose pattern prior to experiencing hunger  This occurs not only when glucose levels fall and rise naturally (by about 10 percent), but also when they are manipulated experimentally  As we eat, several bodily signals combine and ultimately cause us to end our meal  Stomach and intestinal digestion are “satiety signals”  The walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain  Nutritionally rich food seems to produce satiety more quickly than an equal volume of less nutritious food, suggesting that some satiety signals respond to food content  Chemical signals – the intestines respond to food by releasing several hormones—called peptides—that help terminate a meal  For example, CCK (cholecystokinin) is released into your bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach  It travels to the brain and stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease eating Signals That Regulate General Appetite and Weight  Fat cells are not passive storage sites for fat  Rather, they actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin, a hormone that decreases appetite  As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain, where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it  Signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure  Leptin is a “background” signal  It does not make us feel “full” like CCK and other satiety signals  It regulates appetite by increasing the potency of these other signals  Thus, as we gain fat and secrete more leptin, we tend to eat less because these mealtime satiety factors make us feel full sooner  As we lose fat and secrete less leptin, it takes more food and a greater accumulation of satiety signals to make us feel full.  ob gene (ob = obesity) normally directs fat cells to produce leptin  Do not receive the “curb your appetite” signal  mice over eat and become obese o Daily injections made them become thinner  In a mutation of another gene (the db gene), their brain receptors are insensitive to leptin o The “curb your appetite” signal is there, but they can’t detect it, and become obese o Injecting mice does not reduce their food intake and weight  Genetic condition seem to be rare in humans  Are leptin injection the magic bullet?  there is reason for doubt, because obese people already have ample leptin in their blood due to their fat mass. Brain Mechanisms  Two regions in the hypothalamus: the lateral hypothalamus (LH), seemed to be a “hunger on” centre and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), seemed to be a “hunger off” centre  Electrically stimulating a rat’s LH causes it to start eating, and lesioning the LH causes it to refuse to ear, even to the point of starvation  Electrically stimulating the VMH caused a hungry rat to stop eating, and the lesioning the VMH produced gluttons who ate frequently and doubled their body weight  It was learned that LH and VMH played a role in hunger regulation, but they were not really “hunger on” and “hunger off” centres  For example, rats with LH damage stop eating and lose weight in part because they develop trouble swallowing and digesting, and they become generally unresponsive to external stimuli  Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) – cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite o PVN integrates several short term and long term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes—ex. Neuropeptide Y is a transmitter which is an appetite stimulant and when rats were injected with it their food intake doubled and their mass tripled  We become hungry when losing weight because when leptin reaches the hypothalamus it inhibits the activity of neurons to release neuropeptide Y into the PVN and appetite is reduced by people lose fat less leptin is secreted, transmitters for hunger become more active (explains why dieting causes hunger) Psychological Aspects of Hunger  Eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction  Develop an expectation that eating will be pleasurable  Beliefs about caloric content of food, and memory of when and how much we last ate also affect consumption o Test done on amnesia patients who cannot form new long term memories  forget that they have eaten o Amnesia patients accepted multiple lunches half hour after each other, while non-amnesia did not  Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate intake o Feeling stuffed, yet you finish the meal  conception that you shouldn’t “leave food on your plate” o Leads us to eat even when we do not feet hungry  Food restriction stems from social pressures to conform to cultural standards of beauty o University women overestimate how thin they must be to meet men’s standards, while men overestimated how bulky they must be o Women perceived their body as heavier than ideal and men viewed theirs as close to ideal  Those who perceive themselves as heavier tend to have lower self esteem, but this relation is stronger among women than men.  Objectification Theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would  this increases body shame and anxiety which leads to eating restrictions/disorders  women restrict eating to restore self-esteem  Norm that thin=attractive  As few as one in five adolescent and young adult females report being happy with their weight, even when body weight is within a normal, healthy range Environmental and Cultural Factors  People are very sensitive to changes in environmental stimuli o Portion size o Number of people present during a meal o Amount that others eat o Variety of food  Food availability is most obvious environmental regulator of eating o Those who live in poverty have a limited food consumption o Abundant low cost food contributes to high rates of obesity  Food taste and variety powerfully regulate eating  good tasting food positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption  “Tired of eating the same thing” and terminate a meal more quickly  Cafeteria Diet= buffet  food consumption is increased when there is a variety within the menu  Classical conditioning associates smell and sight of food with taste which triggers hunger o Ex. you can be not hungry but then smell bakery or hear the ice-cream truck and crave it o Rats who have eaten recently and are not hungry will eat when presented with sounds and lights that they have learned to associate with food.  Many environmental stimuli affect food intake o Ex. we eat more when eating with others than when we eat alone (usually because meals take longer)  Although we enjoy variety we usually feel most comfortable eating familiar foods and have trouble getting past that comfort Obesity  BMI  25-29.9 is considered overweight, and anything over 30 is considered obese  Canadian children do not disparage obesity to the extent their American counterparts do.  Often blamed as a lack of willpower, a weak character, or emotional disturbances  Obese people eat to cope with stress or that they react more strongly than on obese people to food cues, such as the aroma or appearance of food Genes and environment  Heredity influences basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as fat or lean tissue  Genetic factors account for 40-70% of variation in body mass  Identical twins reared apart are about as similar in body mass as identical twins reared together, and adopted children resemble their biological parents more closely than their adoptive parents  Over 200 genes have been identified as possible contributors  combined effect of a subset gene  Environment also affects our susceptibility to obesity o Experts believe obesity is due to abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high fat foods, a cultural emphasis on getting the best value (causing supersizing of menu items), and technological advances that decrease need for daily physical activity and encourage a sedentary lifestyle  Ex. Pima Indians show how genes and environment interact to produce obesity. o Pima’s are genetically predisposed to obesity and their native diet prevented obesity from showing itself o However as they adapted the Westernized diet they have one of the highest obesity (and diabetes) rates in the world but those living in Northwest Mexico and who still eat a traditional diet and perform physical labour have a lower obesity then the American Pima’s Dieting and weight loss  Being fat primes people to stay fat  These factors cause many obese people to maintain excess weight with fewer calories than people who are gaining the same weight for the first time.  Being fat alters body chemistry and energy expenditure, priming people to stay fat—ex. obese people have higher levels of insulin then people of normal weight which increases the conversion of glucose into fat, as well substantial weight gain makes it hard to exercise and dieting slows down basal metabolism because the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure  Achieving weight loss is not easy, and combining healthy eating with exercise has a greater chance of success than dieting alone  We do not have good estimates of weight loss success rates  Health concerns motivate some dieters but psychological and social concerns are the primary motivators for most –ex. non-obese girls and women diet (including those of average and below average weights) Sexual Motivation  Why do people have sex? o Conceive children  doesn’t explain why people masturbate, have oral sex etc. o Pleasure must be the key  Have sex for gratification  Most women feel as if sex is an un-enjoyable marital duty  Many women find their first sexual intercourse disappointing  Peggy Lee Syndrome  About 10% of American men and 20% of women report that sex is not pleasurable  Have sex to: reproduce, obtain and give pleasure, express love, foster intimacy, build ones ego, peer pressure, get over a broken relationship, earn money etc. Sexual Behaviour: Patterns and Changes  Learn about peoples sexual activities through surveys  18-59 year olds: o 70% of this age group have sex with a partner at least a few times per month  Single adults who cohabit but are not married are the most sexually active, followed by married adults  Those who do not co habit have sex the least  25% of men and 10% of women masturbate one or more times per week, and 60% of men and 40% of women report masturbating at least once a year  85% of men and 45% of women with regular sex partners masturbate at least once a year  Males tend to have their first sexual intercourse experience one or two years earlier than females  By the end of high school, it is similar proportions  Premarital intercourse has become more common in many countries o Changing social norms o Sexual activity at a younger age o Tendency to delay marriage  Premarital trends may be levelling and possibly reversing o Response to increased cultural emphasis on the depth of relationships o AIDS The Physiology of Sex  Masters and Johnson: o Examined the sexual responses of men and women o 10,000 episodes in which volunteers masturbated, had intercourse, and performed other sexual activities o camera  filmed vaginal reactions The Sexual Response Cycle  Four stage sexual response cycle o Excitement phase  arousal builds rapidly  blood flow increases to the arteries and around the genital organs, women’s breasts swell (vascongestion)  the penis and clitoris begin to become erect, the vagina becomes lubricated o Plateau Phase  respiration, heart rate, vascongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm o Orgasm Phase  semen projects out of the penis, rhythmic contractions of outer third of vagina o Resolution Phase  physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition  enter a refractory period during which they are temporarily incapable of having another orgasm  People may experience orgasm on some occasions but not others, and orgasm is neither the only goal nor necessarily the ultimate goal of all sexual activity Hormonal Influences  Hypothalamus  plays a key role in sexual motivation o Controls pituitary gland  regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins  These hormones affect the rate at which the gonads secrete androgens (masculine sex hormone) and estrogens (female sex hormone)  Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics  Womb  they form a primitive gonad that has the potential to form into testes or ovaries  If genetically male, the embryo forms testes  As the testes release sex hormones during a key period of prenatal development, there is enough androgen activity to produce male genital, reproductive, brain, and other organ development.  Hypothalamus stimulates an increased release of sex hormones form the tests when the male reaches puberty  A genetically female embryo does not form testes, as a female pattern development ensues  The hypothalamus stimulates the release of sex hormones from the ovaries on a cyclical basis that regulates the female menstrual cycle.  Sex hormones have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour  They begin at puberty when the individual gonads begin to secrete sex hormones.  Mature males  constant secretion of sex hormones  Hormone secretions in female animals follow an “estrus” cycle, and they are sexually receptive only during period of high estrogen secretion.  Results in increased sexual motivation for most people.  In men and women, androgens, rather than estrogens, appear to have the primary influence on sexual desire.  Baseline level of certain hormones appears necessary to maintain sexual desire  Women who have had their androgens producing organs removed for medial reasons experience a gradual loss of sexual desire that an be reverse by administering sex hormones  Men who are castrated have a decrease in sexual desire  If a man is sexually experienced, sexual responsiveness declines more slowly than sexual desire Sexual Fantasy  About half of men and a fifth of women fantasize about sex at least once a day  Sexual fantasies alone may trigger erection and orgasm in some people, and are often used to enhance arousal during masturbation  Not a result of dissatisfaction with ones partner  People who are more sexually active also tend to fantasize more Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction  Psychological factors can trigger and inhibit sexual arousal.  Can be “turned off” by your partner  About one in three women and one in six men report that they have a lack of interest in sex  Other people desire sex, but have difficulty becoming or staying aroused o Stress, fatigue, and anger  Sexual dysfunction refers to chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person o Result from injuries, diseases, drug effects, or psychological factors.  Performance anxiety can cause both types of problems  Could also be a consequences of sexual assault or childhood sexual abuse Culture and Environmental Influences  Some religious discourage or prohibit premarital sex, extra marital sex, and public dress and behaviour that arouses sexual desire Cultural Norms  Childhood sexuality is suppressed in our culture, but is permitted and even encouraged in others  Marquesan people: o Sleep in one room  observe sexual activity o Parents may masturbate their child is the baby is distressed o Masturbate by age 2 or 3 o Engage in casual homosexual acts o Adult of the opposite sex teaches them sexual techniques  Inis Beag: o Sex is a taboo topic o Nudity is abhorred o Genders are separated from early childhood until marriage o Sex partners keep underwear on o Weird to have an orgasm Arousing Environmental Stimuli  Lovers caress, watching a partner undress  Heiman experiment  measured genital arousal and self reported arousal of sexually experience university students as they listened to tape recordings of erotic and non erotic stories form popular novels. Women and men experienced sexual arousal to descriptions of explicit sex, but not to descriptions devoid of sexual content  Both genders showed strongest arousal when erotic stories focused on the female character Porn, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Attitudes  Internet cyber porn is a multi billion dollar company  Most consumers are men  Question of whether exposure to porn fosters sexual violence against women  Most rapes are not committed by strangers  Social learning theory  people learn though observation o Women enjoy being dominated during sex o Men are entitled to sex when they want it etc.  Catharsis Principle  as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release this tension provide a “catharsis” that temporarily return us to a more balanced physiological state o Viewing pornography provides people with a safe “outlet” for releasing sexual tensions  Correlational studies of real world sexual violence do not clearly support either viewpoint  Sexual offenders do not report having been exposed to porn at a younger age  Countries with high rape have little pornography  Experiment  divided male students into 4 groups o Watched a non sexual film o Watched consensual sex love film o Rape video where woman first resisted and then consented o Rape video of suffering  Results  male participants interacted with a woman and she intentionally angered half of the participants who released their anger through electric shocks  group three increase the aggression of both angered and on angered men  This angered aggression was specifically directed towards women  Clearest and strongest effects emerge from violent porn  Research shows that providing men with realistic information about sexual assault can lead them to reject rape myths  Porn also promotes a view that sex is impersonal and decreases viewers satisfactions with their own sexual partners  Strong messages against coercive sexual practices may promote attitude that help reduce sexual crimes against women. Sexual Orientation  Refers to ones emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex  Heterosexual  opposite sex  Homosexual  same sex  Bisexual  attracted to members of both sexes Prevalence of different sexual orientations  Has three dimensions o Self identity o Sexual attraction o Actual sexual behaviour  3% of NA men and 1% of women identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual, but higher percentages report same gender attraction and at least one same gender experience  Roughly half report same gender attraction but have never had same gender sex and do not think of themselves as homosexual  Almost all individuals who have a homosexual or bisexual self identity also report same gender attraction and same gender sexual activity Determinants of Sexual Orientation  Unsupported biological theory that homosexual and heterosexual males differ in their adult levels of sex hormones  Psychodynamic view  male homosexuality develops with a weak father  Another  sexually seduced by an adult, so the homosexual diverts their sex drive toward members of their own sex  Behaviourists suggested that it was a conditioned response  No particular phenomenon of family life can be singled out  It is a pattern of feelings and reactions within the child that cannot be traced back to a single social or psychological root  There was one notable pattern: o Even in childhood, homosexual men and women felt that they were somehow different from their sae sex peers and were more likely to engage in gender non conforming behaviours o Homosexual women were twice as likely to be tom boys, pretend to play with men’s clothes, and were interested in boy toys  Why do such patterns arise? o Human sexual orientation has genetic roots o 52% among individual twins, 22% among fraternal twins, 11% among adoptive brothers  The closer the genetic relatedness, the higher the concordance rates for sexual orientation  Biological front  altering animals prenatal exposure to sex hormones can influence their sexual orientation  Brain develops a neural pattern that predisposes organisms to prefer either female or male sex partners, depending upon whether prenatal sex hormone activity follows a masculine or feminine path  Rare cases  genetically male fetuses are insensitive to their own androgen secretions and some female fetuses experience an atypical build up of androgens.  No clear evidence that prenatal sex hormones directly affect human sexual orientation  Ale fetuses who have androgen insensitivity develop the external anatomy of females and typically are raised as girls, and socialization could account for their sexual orientation  Environmental  about half of the cases in which one identical twin is homosexual, the other one is heterosexual  Thus, several biological factors and socialization experiences may combine to determine our sexual orientation  Bem: o Hereditary affects sexual orientation only indirectly by influencing children’s basic personality style o Different personality traits steer children towards different socialization experiences o May be multiple paths toward developing a sexual orientation Achievement Motivation  Need for achievement  represents the desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence Motivation for Success: The Thrill of Victory  Positively oriented motive for success  Negatively orientated motivation to avoid failure  fear of failure  People who have a strong motive for success are attracted to the “thrill of victory” o Set mastery goals and performance-approach goals.  Mastery goals reflect intrinsic motivation  I want to learn as much as possible from this class o Students who view mastery as important study hard, think about material deeply, and display better long term retention  Performance approach goals involve social comparison  I want to outdo my peers o Leads to high effort and predicts somewhat higher course grades Fear of Failure  Fear of failure is usually measured by psychological tests  how much anxiety they experience in achievement situations  People with a fear of failure tend to adopt performance approach goals in which it is important to outperform peers, but they also have strong performance avoidance goals  my fear of performing poorly motivates me  The worry associated with fear of failure and performance avoidance goals impairs task performance  Anxiety makes it difficult to process information effectively and attend to the task requirements o Choking under pressure Achievement Needs and Situational factors  People with a strong need for achievement are ambitious and persist longer after encountering difficulty than do people with a low need for achievement  University students who have high achievement motivation tend to seek out and enter more prestigious occupations  High need achievers generally do not outperform individuals with low achievement motivation when conditions are relaxed and tasks are easy  When tasks are challenging, high need achievers outshine low need achievers  High need achievers strive for success when: o They perceive themselves as personally responsible for the outcome o They perceive some risk of not succeeding o There is an opportunity to receive performance feedback  High need achievers prefer intermediate rather than extremely high to low risks o Most challenging because the outcome is the most uncertain  People with a high fear of failure are more likely to choose tasks that are easy or very difficult  The key to understand this behaviour is to recognize that it is the individuals perception of tasks uncertainty that counts  Mt. Everest o Most of us, the success of climbing is zero o The highly trained mountaineers, it is not impossible or easy  Test  climbers would be in between optimistic and pessimistic o Success-failure 50/50 o Randomly made optimistic or pessimistic statements to individual members of the climbing team  opposite to the statement  balance out Family and Cultural Influences  High need for achievement develops when parents encourage and reward achievement, but do not punish failure  Fear of failure seems to develop when successful achieve
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