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Chapter 10.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10 SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 1. When language is interpreted in terms of knowledge and expectations it is referred to as: A. creativity. B. top-down processing. C. bottom-up processing. D. inductive reasoning. E. deductive reasoning. SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 2. The smallest sound unit in language is referred to as: A. a morpheme B. a phoneme C. pragmatics D. syntax E. semantics DEFINING INTELLIGENCE  Intelligence is a set of abilities which allows us to o Acquire knowledge o To think rationally o Act purposefully o Deal effectively with the environment Intelligence can be thought of as a capacity rather than a thing THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Spearman: a single unitary factor (g) -observed school grades -subjects were positively correlated (high mark in one = high in other) - so attributed to general intelligence or g Factor Analysis - reduces variables related to clusters - (called factors) A single unitary facor (g) a single unitary factor (g) with a single unitary factor - savant – below average intelligence but excel in one particular area - learning disabilities – usually effect only specific skills THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Thurstone: 7 primary mental abilities - Performance on a task is more influenced by the specific abilities rather than a general intelligence THURSTONE: S - space V - Verbal W – word fluency (charmer or not) N – number facility (mathematics) P – perceptual speed (how quickly can you recognize a pattern) M - Rote memory (memorization skills) R – reasoning (solve analytical reasoning problem) GULIFORD – more than 100 distinct measurable mental abilities THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE CATTELL: intelligence - Ability to apply previously acquired info to a current problem - ability to deal with new problems - reason abstractly, think logically - adequate ST working memory (younger has stronger fluid intelligence and old have more crystallized intelligence and lose fluid intelligence)************************************************************** Most language Apply culturallyu functions acquired problem solving skills The Triarchic View of Intelligence Sternberg argues for 3 dimensions of intelligence: 1. Analytical: involves the kinds of academically oriented problem-solving skills asesed by traditional iq tests 2.Practical: the ability to use experiences in dealing with everyday tasks 3. Creative: the mental skills needed to deal with novel problems THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE Gardner: intelligence is composed as seven different domains      EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE: Daniel Goleman -A type of social intelligence that involves the ability to - monitor the emotions of yourself and others - discriminate among emotions - use the info to guide one’s thinking and actions Emotional intelligence: includes 5 domains INTRAPERSONAL (in ones self) - self-awareness - manage emotions - motivating oneself INTERPERSONAL ( between individuals) - recognizing others emotions - handling relationships Emotional Intelligence (can be learned) emotional intelligence than on traditional intelligence ations - long-term relationships - career success - physicians treatment of patients CREATIVITY – ability to produce work that is both original and appropriate • ability to see things in new ways • involves curiosity Creativity involves: - intellectual ability (ability to see problems in new ways) - knowledge of given field -thinking style (both globally and locally =top down and bottom up processing) - personality traits (take risks) -intrinsic motivation ( love for ones work) - supportive environment MEASURING CREATIVITY •Guilford’s Unusual Uses Test •Divergent thinking –trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating as many possible solutions •Convergent thinking – narrow down the list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer •Contributes to, but does not constitute, creativity •Does creativity occur in a burst of insight? •Incubation Theory- • creativity depends on unconscious thought processes •Creative personality? • autonomous, introverted, open to new experiences •Creativity & mental illness • unusual thought processes • high motivation (mania) and high self confidence ASSESSING INTELLIGENCE ASSUMPTIONS • valued capacity • individual differences • can be defined and measured • can predict “real life” success/failure HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE SIR FRANCIS GALTON (Late 1800s) • “inherited mental constitutions” (biological basis for intelligence) • evolutionary perspective  Measured head circumference and perceptual speed • ALFRED BINET (early 1900s) (first iq) • established typical mental functioning of children at various ages MENTAL AGE = highest level of functioning HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE (William Stern) LIMITATIONS – problems measuring intelligence in adults (intelligence stabalises sometime after school) Part B SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 1. A type of intelligence that allows one to understand the feelings of oneself and others is referred to as: A. creativity. B. fluid intelligence. C. crystallized intelligence. D. emotional intelligence. E. None of the above. SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 2. The theorist that proposed that intelligence is best described as a unitary factor “g” was: A. Spearman B. Thurstone C. Cattell D. Guilford E. Gardner MEASURING INTELLIGENCE INTELLIGENCE TESTS Stanford-Binet (IQ)- reflects individuals performance relative to peers on mostly verbal items Wechlser Scales (WAIS-R, WISC) - measures verbal and performance intelligence *Culturally bias in intelligence tests Culture-fair tests: Raven progressive matrices test Wechlser (WAIS-R, WISC) VERBAL SCALES – left hemisphere functioning SUBTEST INDICATOR OF ______________________________________ Vocabulary Language master
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