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Psychology 1000

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Lecture 1 September-06-12 5:01 PM Homework: Today'sTopics:  What is Psychology? Read Chapter 1 (pages 2-19)  Study Tips Important Points: Always keep up with the readings as they are assigned;try and read the chapter before the lecture Make notes before class as well,use study guide Psychology deals with: the brain, the mind, differentmethods of learning, and clinical issues Study Tips for Psych 1000 • Relax, don't stress out • Ask for help if you need it • Lots of biology in psychology, be prepared • Don't be intimidated by the class size • Take Student DevelopmentCentre (SDC) workshops • Read text, make notes before class • Don't miss class • Use the study guide • Keep up with the readings • Form a study group (either informally through floor, or through SDC) Lecture Topic: Whatis Psychology?  Psychology (particularly the neurosciencebranch) involves the study of the brain  It also involves the study of the mind, which is part of our conscious awareness,created by the brain  Studying the different methods of learning is also part of psychology (e.g. learning through watching screen media)  8/10 televisionshows contain violence;act of violence occurs every 16 mins, a murder every 31 mins  93.5% of cartoons contain violence,good guys as violentas bad guys, pain and sufferingnevershown (sanitizing it)  Psychology also involves clinical issues and treating mental conditions, "curing" them.  Psychosurgery: brain surgery in the absence of obvious organic damage Moniz (1935) • Radical prefrontal lobotomy (PFL) has "calming" effect on violentemotional behaviour • Moniz supervisesapprox. 100 labs • Over next 20 years - 40 000 PFLs performedin the USA • Called the "Ice Pick" procedure because of how simpleit was; tilt the head back and stick pin through eyelidto lobotomize prefrontal lobe • Prefrontal lobes control emotion (therefore they're separate from the rest of the brain) • Patients became more docile, apathetic, severeblunting of emotion, intellectual problems,can be terminal Summary  Psychology involves:the brain, the mind, differentmethods of learning, and dealing with clinical issues  DON'T PROCRASTINATE, stay on top of all work assignedand study, study, study Lecture Notes Page 1 Lecture 2 September-11-12 1:26 PM Homework: Today's Topics:  Explanations of Behaviour Finish Chapter 1  Schools of Psychology  Pioneers Important Points: What are the different approaches to psychology? What do psychologists do? Who were the pioneers of psychology? Lecture Topic: What is Psychology?  "Long past, short history" - the roots of psychology started off several hundred B.C., but psychology as an actual scienceis only about a 100 -150 years old Lecture Topic: Schoolsof Psychology  Functionalism:one of the original approaches of psychology (late 1800s). Focus on the function or significance of behaviour. How does a behaviour or mental process help us to adapt? Primarily biological (looks at behaviour from somewhat Darwinian perspective). Examples: psychobiology, neuroscience, ethology (studying behaviour as it occurs in the real world)  Psychodynamic:(Freud's approach, also a classic/old approach). Focus on unconscious experience,the "mind". Psychdyn psychs look for unresolved conflicts which may cause behaviour. Importance of personality. Examples: brief psychodynamic therapy, unconscious processing  Behaviourism: (contrary to the approach given by Freud). "If you can't see it, it doesn't exist"; focus on behaviour, forget the "mind". Behav psychs discuss how behaviour changes under various conditions. Examples: learning theories, behaviour modification  Differencebetween functionalism and behaviourism: functionalists are always concerned with how the behaviour helps you out/helps you survive in life, whereas behaviourists only care about what emotion/motivation caused a behaviour, not the bigger picture Lecture Topic: Explanations of Behaviour BiologicalLevel: brain structure, neurotransmitters, looking at how the brain is structured and wired Individual & PsychologicalLevel (e.g. learning, cognitive processes): ex. Being brought up in a violent home, looking at everything through a perspective ofviolence, more prone to violence. Ex. Individual: different triggers can cause different people to do the same thing Cultural & Environmental(e.g. value system): ex. Does the cultural systemsupportor discourageaggression; some cultures promote non-violence, some reward limited forms of violence - No level is better than any other level; they are just different ways of explaining behaviour Lecture Notes Page 2 Lecture 3 September-13-12 1:18 PM Homework: Today's Topics:  What do Psychologists do? Chapter 2 (pgs. 44-68)  Pioneers of Psychology; who are they?  Scientific Method; how do we determine which claims about psychology are valid? Lecture Topic:Tips for Reading the Psychology(and other subjects') text Lecture Topic: Basic TimeManagement  Think about background info  Identify your "best time" for study  Survey the titles, headings, etc. before reading the chapter  Study difficultsubjects first  Outline the chapter (do an outline before reading the chapter; figure out the essential thing in each section)  Use distributed learning  Decidehow much you will read  Make sure environmentis supportive  As you start, look at the heading and ask "What is this about?"  Set time for your social life  Look at the layout for clues (bold font)  Set time to sleep & eat  Look for the "big picture"  Combine activities  Paraphrase section… put notes in margin… key words. Concepts  Make summary notes  Make up test questions Lecture Topic:Gestalt Tradition  Focus on perception and experience  Look at how people think and remember  Consider everything in context  Both biological and environmental  Modern examples:you can see this in all types of cognition, information processing Lecture Topic:Psychologyis what psychologistsdo  43% are clinical psychologists - treat/diagnose mental disorders, or do research  11% are counseling psychologists - tend to deal with "normal" behaviour as opposed to "abnormal" disorders (e.g. relationship counseling)  4% are developmentalpsychologists - interested in aging, child development, brain development; look at the psychology of someoneover a life span  5% are educational psychologists (e.g. Dr. Mike) - what's a good way to teach, what's a good way to learn  8% are experimentalpsychologists - do work on learning, memory, info processing;but really all types of psychologistsrun experiments  7% are industrial/organizational psychologists - involved in factors that affect the workplace; often work in businesses  2% are personality psychologists - typically concernedwith personality traits and ways/scalesto measure them  7% are school psychologists - counselingpsychologistswho specificallytalk about school/guidancerelated things, typically don't do research  4% are social psychologists - deal with all sorts of social interaction (e.g. aggression & distraction)  9% are others - can't come up with a label for themselves,do a lot of different things (e.g. legal aspects of psychology) Lecture Topic:Humanistic Tradition  Focus on values and choice  Help people fulfill potential  Both biological and environmental  Modern example:Carl Rogers'/Rogerian therapy, the "self"  Humanist--> people are more or less good, trying to achieve potential; psychodynamist--> people have all these bad forces in them that come into conflictin their unconsciousness  Rogerian therapist: waits for you to start, takes clients, would not talk during the session, would just ask you to keep talking about whatever the current subjectis  Freudian/psychodynamic therapist: would ask right away "what's wrong with you?", takes patients Lecture Topic:Themes in Psychology  Psychology is an empirical science;must test all claims that are made in psychology  Psychology is theoretically diverse  Behaviour is determined by multiple causes - multiplicity of causality  Heredity and environment jointly influencebehaviour (nature vs. nurture)  Experienceis subjective  Psychology evolves in a socio-culturalhistorical context (e.g. multiple personality disorder (DID) is rampant in North America, somewhatcommonin Europe,virtually nil in Asia)  Psychology is constantly changing, people are different, people change, it is hard to predict how people will change Lecture Topic:Pioneers of Psychology  Rene Descartes - mathematician, not a psychologist; but he was extremelyinterested in what modern day psychologistsstudy today  He was interested in how nerve impulsesworked and was interested in the reflex arc  Gustav Fechner - had a whole argument about how many angels can fit on a pin (concernedwith whether or not God's power could be measured)  In the process, he developed many different methods of measuring behaviour in psychology  Wilhelm Wundt - developed the first psychology lab in 1879; he was a structuralist: structuralism no longer practiced because it is self-reported  William James - claimedthat he formed the first psychology lab; classifiedhimself as a functionalist; his influence was much stronger than Wundt's influence because of Lecture Notes Page 3  William James - claimedthat he formed the first psychology lab; classifiedhimself as a functionalist; his influence was much stronger than Wundt's influence because of his field of specialty; wrote first psychology textbook  Mary Calkins - worked as an instructor at a Southern US university, comesto Harvard to study with William James; went on to study developmental psychology; first female president of American PsychologyAssociation (APA)  Sigmund Freud - he is originally not a psychologist, he is intrigued by patients who have bizarre physical symptoms that could not possibly exist; becomesconvinced that repressed memories& psychologicalproblems were the cause of these physical symptoms--> psychodynamictheory  Carl Jung - one of Freud's students, broke away from Freud after a while after finding his writings bizarre (e.g. Freudian sexual conflict); also psychodynamic  Carl Rogers - completely different approach to psychology with the humanistic approach  Ivan Pavlov - won Nobel Prize for his experimentswith dogs and salivation --> classical conditions  B.F. Skinner - thinks behaviour is controlled by rewards and punishments,comes up with his own school of conditioning behaviour  Jean Piaget - after Freud, second most cited psychologistin history; really interested in how kids develop intelligence,how it developsover time; comesup with the Piagetan theory, which comesup the idea that children'sintelligence grows in stages and the way they think is different from adults  Karl Lashley & Wilder Penfield- Lashley:the way to study the brain is to observe what happens to it when you take away certain structures of the brain; Penfieldis a Canadian neurosurgeon who operates on epileptic patients (explored more in biological chapter); Penfield mapped the cortex, brain regions, brain areas  Wolfgang Kohler - Gestaltist, studies chimpsand apes; discovers they can knock down bananas with tools, without any training at all  Kurt Levin - many would say he is the father of social psychology; group thinking studies Lecture Topic:Scientific Method  Identify the problem & formulate the hypothesis  Design & execute the experiment (this step is important in detail, may be on the exam)  Determine the "truth"  Communicate the results Lecture Topic:Cognitive Dissonance  Cognitive Dissonance:when something doesn't agree with what your true belief is, we attempt to justify it to align it with our real views Lecture Notes Page 4 Lecture 4 September-18-12 1:24 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Research Methods  More Study Tips Finish Chapter 2 Read pages 69-75  Scientific Methods  Designing a Study Important Points: Lecture Topic: Getting the Most from the Lecture How do we validate claims about a psychological experience?  Active listening is important; attend to speaker...anticipate  Read ahead How do you design an experiment? What are the advantages of the experimental method  Write speaker's comments in your own words  Attend to "clues"  Ask questions  Go to class Lecture Topic: Scientific Method  Identify the problem & formulate the hypothesis - Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events - Theory: collection of hypotheses; an organizing system; more general, elaborate - Good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses (e.g. Theory of Relativity); compare Freudian Theory, Behaviour Theory - Behaviour Theory is the "better" theory by this criteria because you can test and measure behaviour and generates testable hypotheses, whereas the Freudian Theory talks about unconscious (and immeasurable) motivations  Design & execute the experiment (this step is important in detail, WILL be on the exam) - Identify variables: Independent --> manipulated, Dependent --> measured - We want to be able to say the Independent variable caused the Dependent variable - Without proper control, the experiment will be confounded (i.e. impossible to tell if the ind variable caused the dep variable to change because extraneous factors that could have affected the dep variable were not controlled)  Determine the "truth" - Do your results support the hypothesis? Are there any REAL differences? --> analyzed by statistics Communicate the results  - Publish a report in a journal - Present a verbal description of results at a convention - Discuss several related experiments in a book chapter Summary of Scientific Method  Psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of behaviour  To examine causal relations, they use the scientific method  Form hypotheses (which come from theories)  Manipulate Independent Variables, measure Dependent Variables  All extra variables should be controlled  If not the experiment is confounded and experimenter makes a mistake in causal explanation Lecture Topic: Research Methods  Observational Methods - Collecting information about behaviour without trying to change it - Non-participant (e.g. experimenter behind 1-way glass) or participant (e.g. Festinger's When Prophesy Fails)  Survey Methods - Collecting information about behaviour through surveys and questionnaires (e.g. Kinsey report on sexual behaviour) - Self-report can be an issue  Case Study Methods (typically used in Clinical Psychology) - (e.g. Luria's "The Mind of a Mnemonist")  Correlational Methods - Determining the degree of relationship between 2 or more variables (e.g. investigating the relation between hours of TV watching and grades) Must be very careful with correlational methods --> correlation does not equal causality -  Experimental Methods - Manipulating one or more variables to determine the relationship between them - Independent variable is manipulated, Dependent variable is measured - Random Sampling/Stratified Random Sampling is how we get rid of a lot of problems in experiments (i.e. cultural differences, gender differences, age differences) Lecture Notes Page 5 Lecture 5 September-20-12 1:38 PM Homework: Today's Topics:  Biological Foundations Read pages 73-78 Section on the synapse is one of the most important sections in the chapter  More Research Design  The Neuron  Action Potential Important Points: What are some sources of bias in an experiment? What is the basic structure of a neuron How do neurons "work"? To make a causalstatement, must designan experiment where YOU (the experimenter) manipulateand controlthe variables;obse rvational studiesonly reveal correlationaldata not causality Lecture Topic: Between Groups Study vs. Within Groups Study  Between Groups Study - Each group is exposed to a separate level of the independent variable/separate treatment or no treatment for one group (contr ol group)  Within Groups Study - All subjects are exposed to all conditions of the experiment (e.g. all participants watch violent TV and non-violent TV) - The experiment must be counter-balanced (e.g. half watch violence first then non-violence, other half watches the reverse order of that) Ways of measuring aggression: giving the participants a survey (self-report), verbal attack, physical attack (shocking someone with volts), "safe" attack (kids playing with weighted bobo doll), interviewing them, puttingthem in stressful situations with opportunities to be aggressive Lecture Topic: Threats to Validity  Internal Validity - Degree to which an experiment supports causal conclusion  External Validity - Degree to which results can be generalized (i.e. applied to different scenarios/situations/people)  Demand Characteristics (participants figure it out) - Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants; they "help" experimenter; Geen & Berkowitz (1967)  Experimenter Expectancy Effects (experimenter subtly/subconsciouslydrops what the experiment is about) - Experimenter "conveys" hypothesis to participants; Intons-Peterson(1983) - Best way to overcome this shortcoming --> double-blind study to control for these effects Lecture Topic: The Nervous System  Descartes, mathematician, first pioneer of psychology --> thought of the reflex arc idea Lecture Topic: How do I determine whether my study worked?  Stimuli transferred from periphery to brain and reflected back  Look at the data --> use statistics  How --> " Animal Spirits" (not real)  Emphasized importance of pineal gland  Swammerdam's Frog Experiment - Puts frog legs into jar and measure volume with water before and after to test for animal spirits  Bell - Sensory nerves --> afferent nerves, motor nerves --> efficient nerves  Bell & Muller; thought each nerve had specific nerve energy  Speed of impulse - Helmholtz discovered the limit of the speed of the impulse is 50-100 m/second  Maskelyne & Kinnebrook Lecture Topic: Neurons (must know important parts of multi polar/motor neuron structure)  Cell body doesn't do anything for the neuron except nourish and maintain other parts of the neuron  Dendrites are the receiving ends of the neuron, they receive the action potential from another neuron  Axon, cells can only have 1 axon; sending side of the neuron, sends info to the axon terminals which connects to other nerve cells  Many axons are covered by something called the Myelin sheath which increases transmission speed; less myelin/degraded myelin = much slower neural conduction of the impulse  Nodes of Ranvier are important for generating electrical charge  Classifyby shape: unipolar, bipolar, multipolar cells  Classifyby function:sensory neurons --> afferent (from outside to inside), motor neurons --> efferent (from CNS inside back to effector), inter neurons --> relay stations transmitting potential from sensory neurons to motor neurons Lecture Notes Page 6 Lecture 6 September-25-12 1:33 PM Homework: Today's Topics:Synaptic Communication Read page 80-90  How do Neurons work?  Neural Communication  The Synapse Important Points: How is it that neurons produce an electrical signal? How does a neuron code intensity? How does one neuron communicate with another? Lecture Topic: How do neurons work/produce an electricalsignal?  Cell membrane: semi-permeable membrane that holds in the fluids of the cell (for the most part) and doesn't let them escape + + - +  Intracellularfluid: Na , K C, , A (some protein)  Extracellularfluid: much more Na in the extracellularfluid --> creates an electrical difference between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell--> resting potential= -70 millivolts(mV)  Depolarization:electrical difference between inside and outside of cell decreases in magnitude --> because of Na ions rushing into the cell --> intracellular space becomes more positive, gets closer to 0 mV - Thresholdpotential:the threshold potential is the value that the action potential needs to cross in order for a nerve impulse to be transmitted from one neuron to another --> -55 mV --> once it crosses the threshold a nerve impulse will be conducted for sure--> membrane potential shoots up all the way to approx. +40 mV as + the Na ions rush in - Repolarization:after the membrane potential reaches its peak at +40mV, K ions rush out of the intracellular space into the extracellular space, making the intracellular space more negative again as positives leave the cell (repolarization)--> membrane potential goes all the way back down to -70 mV - Hyperpolarization:when enough K ions rush out of the cell that the membrane potential actually goes below-70 mV, results in 2 refractoryperiod --> absolute refractory periodis when the membrane potential is still being hyperpolarized and is below -70 mV; no action potential can be conducted at this time--> relative refractory periodis when the membrane potential is still below -70 mV but is done being hyperpolarized; an action potential can be conducted but it requires a higher stimulation to reach threshold  Actionpotentialsonly occurin axons (then travels to axon hillock),do not occurin the dendrites, cell body, etc., any change in electrical charge in parts of the neuron that are not the axon are calledgraded potentials Lecture Topic: CodingIntensity  Neurons fire in an all-or-none fashion; they either conduct an action potential or they do not, there are no action potentials that are "weaker" or "stronger" than others  How to code for intensity? - Some neurons have different thresholds - Strong stimulus = more neurons sending action potentials - However, the number1 methodof coding for intensityof a stimulusin the frequency of the firing of a neuron--> the intensity of a stimulusis directly proportionalto frequencyof neuronfiring - The neuron will never fire any faster than the amount of time it takes to get back to the absolute refractory period Lecture Topic: Neural Communication  Sherrington (some British experimenter) conducted experiments about the reflex arc (receptor--> sensory --> inter neuron --> motor neuron -->) and inferred that the neurons must not be physically wired together; there are small spaces between them calledsynapses (spaces between neurons where neurotransmitters travel over to reach the synaptic cleft to either continue or inhibit postsynaptic transmission of the action potential)  In the synapse there aresynaptic vesicles which contain neurotransmitters that travel from the presynaptic membrane to the postsynaptic receptors for the neurotransmitters  On the postsynaptic membrane there are receptors that have the same shape as some of the neurotransmitters released by the presynaptic membrane --> if the neurotransmitter and the receptor fit together than the NT travels into postsynaptic membrane, conducting the action potential  After a short period of time, all the remaining NTs in the synapse have to be taken up into the presynaptic membrane again (process called re-uptake)--> monoamine oxidase (MAO) is released to break down the NTs and they are taken back into the presynaptic neuron  For some NTs, when they are received by the postsynaptic receptor, Na channels open in post synaptic membrane and an action potential may be conducted in the axon postsynaptic neuron from the graded potential in the dendrites --> the NT has created an excitatory post synapticpotential(EPSP)  When the opposite occurs, and the NT in the receptor causes K channels to open and hyperpolarization occurs, then an action potential will not occur due to no graded potential in the dendrites --> the NT has createdan inhibitorypost synapticpotential(IPSP) Lecture Topic: Neurotransmitters  Norepinephrine (NA) - Function: Inhibitory (mainly) & excitatory - Related to: systems controlling arousal & eating  Acetylcholine (ACh) - Function: Excitatory (most common function) & inhibitory - Related to:  Dopamine(DA) - Function: Inhibitory and excitatory - Related to: voluntary movement, arousal  Seratonin(5-HT) Lecture Notes Page 7  Seratonin(5-HT) Function: Inhibitory & Excitatory - - Related to: sleep, thermoregulation, also involved in causal factors of depression  Gamma aminobutyricacid (GABA) - Function: Inhibitory - Related to: motor behaviour Lecture Notes Page 8 Lecture 7 September-27-12 1:33 PM Homework: Today's Topics: The Brain Finish Chapter3 Especially pages(97-101)  Review of Neurons  Drug Effects  GrossBrain Anatomy ImportantPoints: Whathappenswhen multipleneuronssynapse? Howdo drugswork? Whatare the majorstructuresof thebrain? LectureTopic: Neurons  Semi - permeablemembrane  Chargedueto ions (-70mV) + +  Action potentialdueto Na andK exchange  Neuronsgenerateaction potentialsin "all ornone"fashion  Intensityof a stimuluscoded as frequencyof neuronfiring  Synapse - Action potential"pushes"vesicles towardgap - Neurotransmittersdiffuseacrossgap - Lock andkey receptors (if NT is thesamesize it will fit in receptor) - Oncethe NT does fit intoreceptor, it can cause: depolarizationvia a gradedpotential (excitatorypostsynapticpotential -->openssodium channels) - Or hyperpolarization viaa graded potential(inhibitory post synapticpotential -->opens potassiumchannels)  Norepinephrine(NE), Dopamine(DA), and Serotonin(5-HT)are themostimportant NTsforpsychology  Drug Effects - All drugeffectsact at the level of thesynapse - Increaseor decrease theamount ofNT - Processes thatterminatetransmitteraction - Stimulatesor blocksreceptor sites LectureTopic: Drug Effects  Cocaine - Stimulatesrelease of DA - Preventsthereuptakeof DA - The extendedrelease and prevention of thereuptakeof DA can causedruginducepsychosissimilar to schizophrenia sinceschi zophrenicshaveway toomuch DA in their system  Curare - Blocks receptorsites forACh  BlackWidow Venom - Stimulatesrelease of Ach -->Ach is involved in movement,includinginnermovements of organsand otherinternalprocesses -->bitten by hordeof black widows = hyperactivemovementof heart = heart explosion  Botulism - Blocks therelease of Ach, prevents yourbody frommovinganythingaround inside  Nicotine - Stimulatesreceptormolecules, "duplicating"effectsof Ach  Caffeine - Blocks Adenosinereceptorsites; adenosinemakesyousleepy so blockingthosereceptorskeeps youawake  Agonist:an agonistfacilitates therelease/effectsof a NT (e.g. nicotinewith Ach)  Antagonist:an antagonist blocks therelease/effectsof a NT (e.g. caffeinewith adenosine) LectureTopic: Summary of Neurons  "ExcitatoryNeuronsvs. Inhibitory Neurons"(i.e. neuronsthatreceive NTs thatresult in an IPSP,and neuronsthatreceive N Ts thatresult in an EPSP)  ExcitatoryNeurons - Depolarize postsynapticmembrane(EPSP)  InhibitoryNeurons - Hyperpolarizepostsynapticmembrane(IPSP)  Both EPSPsandIPSPsare graded potentials becausethey are changesin electrical chargenotlocated in theaxon  EPSPsandIPSPsare additiveacrossspaceandtime - Becausethey are graded potentials,they are additive -->thesum of all of theEPSP andIPSP graded potentialsdetermineswhetheror notthepostsynaptic membranewill be depolarized  "Constant"Inhibition effectively "raises"threshold level(e.g. from -55mV to -90 mV)  A single neuronmight synapsewith many others(i.e. receives NTs from 3 different neurons)  If thesum of IPSPsand thesum of EPSPsare equaltoeach otherthen nochangewill occurin thepostsynapticmembrane LectureTopic: Parts of the Brain (Dr. Mike ismore concernedabout what these thingsdo ratherthan where theyare located) Lecture Notes Page 9 LectureTopic: Parts of the Brain (Dr. Mike ismore concernedabout what these thingsdo ratherthan where theyare located)  CerebralCortex - The partthatmanypeopleare concernedaboutin psychology,apparently itis thepartthatmakesus human;notvery develope din otheranimalswith the exception of dolphins,otherapes - Has a lot of foldsin it, like thecerebellum - Insidethe cortex:parietal lobe, occipitallobe, frontallobe, temporallobe, a majorfold called thecentral fissure - Occipitallobe:is themain processingstationforvision and visualprocesses(visual area) - Temporal lobe:involvedin auditoryprocessingand somevisualprocessing(auditoryarea) - Frontal lobe:containsthe motor projectionarea,where all motion/movingis processed - Parietallobe:contains the somatosensoryarea (smell, taste,balance)  Pons - Involved in sleep, othertiming regulations - Located in a swelling partof thespinalcord right in front of thecerebellum  Cerebellum - Little separateball section at thebottom back of thebrain - Many folds, allowsit to pack morematerialintothespacethebrain occupies - Primarily responsibleformovements,notultra finemovements butcoordinated movements,wrapped aroundthebaseof thebrain  Corpuscallosum - The partof thebrain thatjoinstheleft hemisphereandthe right hemispheretogether - Can be severed in thebrain of a healthyhumanwith virtually nochangein health/behaviour  Basalganglia - Eye movementsare controlled fromthis area, othermovements aswell - Insidethe basalgangliais thelimbic system:putaman,caudatenucleus,amygdala,thalamus,hippocampus, pinealgland,hypothalamus - Hippocampus:is involvedin memory (i.e. tryingto remembersomething,transferringsomething fromshort-termmemoryto long-term memory - Amygdala:is involvedin emotionality butis notthecreatorof ouremotions - Hypothalamus:a lot of thingsare controlledor routedthrough thehypothalamuslike eating, drinking, bodily regulation,hormonalsecre tion, the pituitary glandhangsoffof it (which is oneof the"master"glandsin thebrain,secretes manyhormones) Lecture Notes Page 10 Lecture 8 October-02-12 1:53 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Genetics p. 109-116  CorticalOrganization  Disorders  Lateralization & Split Brain ImportantPoints: How are the cortical areas organized What happens if these areas are damaged Is there a separate consciousness in each hemisphere Lecture Topic: ProjectionAreas (each and every ProjectionArea contains all of thesethings)  Topographicrepresentation - Mapping on the brain's surface that literally corresponds to different areas of the body and how they move  Contralateralcontrol - Refers to the fact that there is opposite side control in each hemisphere (i.e. the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body, the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body)  FunctionalAssignment of Space - "the more functionally important an area is, the more cortical space is dedicated to it in the brain" --> there is not an equal amount of cortical space devoted to everything  The associationareas are directlybeside the projectionareas (e.g. the visual associationarea is beside the visual projection area); the association areas are where we make sense of the informationreceived from the projection areas Lecture Topic: How do we get this informationabout the brain?  Scan intact brain (probably provides the best evidence about the brain) - Examples: Angiograms, CAT scans, MRIs, and PET scans - Angiogram: x-rays of the brain enhanced with dye (e.g. used when someone has had a stroke); can see blood vessels but cannot see much of anything else, cannot show much detailed structure & no function - CAT scan: Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT);x-rays from a 360 degree rotationaround the brain; can also get an idea of brain damage in addition to info about structural features as well; supremely enlarged vesicles in brain = loss of a lot of brain tissue - PET scan: Positron emission tomography (PET); injections with radioactive glucose to find out which neurons are working the most (i.e. using the most glucose), and the radioactivenature of the glucose can be measured; the moreintense the colour of the PET scan in a particular area, the more activity there is; not designed to give you structural information, designed to provide functional info about whether an area is working or not - MRI or fMRI (crown jewel of obtaining brain info): Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI); exposure to extremely strong magnetic field to obtain anatomical structure info about the brain; fMRI is the combination of the structural info of MRI + the functional info of the PET scan; gives us informationabout the kinds of things going on in each cortical area  Evidence from brain damage/brain lesions  Direct stimulation of cortex Lecture Topic: AssociationAreas  Integrate & Interpret the informationand material received and figure out what is going on in the real world  NeuralDisordersthatare associationarea issues - Apraxia: inability to perform smooth actions (e.g. someone with this would not be able to go "pick up a cup of coffee", they would have to achieve this action via a series of smaller steps like walk towards it, move arm, etc.) - Agnosia: (latin for "no knowledge") inability to interpret sensory information; an example is prosopagnosia,the inability to recognize or interpret faces, regardless of whether it is a stranger, a loved one, a relative; even if it is their own reflection in the mirror they still wouldn't be able to recognize it - Fusiform gyrus seems to be responsible for facial recognition in humans, therefore it is damaged/disrupted, you won't be able to interpret or recognize faces - Aphasia:disorders related to speech; 2 kinds of aphasia --> Expressive/Broca'saphasia:someone with this disorder has an inability in stringing words together (e.g. "pass cup coffee me"); following stroke this may happen to people; Receptive/Wernicke'saphasia:the opposite disorder, difficulty in understanding speech --> they cannot understand what you say to them and cannot understand what they themselves say - Broca'sArea --> Frontal Lobe, found near motor cortex; Wernicke'sArea --> Temporal Lobe, found near auditory cortex Lecture Topic: Lateralization& Split Brain (the hemispheresare specializedbut the differences are not that major)  Left hemisphere - Language, reading, logical thought; where the "language centres" are, in general is the more logical and linguistical hemisphere; for 95% of right-handers, language is localized in this hemisphere  Righthemisphere - Non-verbal --> space perception, form,synthesis, emotional centres  Hemispatialneglect (almost always --> 99% of the time --> only affects the rightside of the brain) - Results from damage (stroke) to right hemisphere (Parietal & Temporal lobes) --> therefore the left visual field is completely ignored when viewing pictures or even drawing pictures - The brain ignores the contralateral spatial field; usually a visual disorder - Only found in human --> lower animals have bilateral spatial representation (i.e. what is in one hemisphere is also in the other) As humans evolved, the language centres "crowded" out the spatial in the left -  Split brain --> when the corpus callosum (the thing that connects the left and right hemispheres) is cut Lecture Notes Page 11 Lecture 9 October-04-12 1:43 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Genetics Heritability; Pages 117- 123  Gene Action  Dominant& Recessive Traits Exam room:NS 145  PolygeneticEffects ImportantPoints: Howdogenes "work"? Whatis theoutcomewith recessive genes? Howis morecomplexbehaviourcoded? LectureTopic: Why are young children more likelyto recoverfrom traumatic brain experience thanadults?  Youngchildren havemany moresynapsesthan adults (you loseunused synapsesas you get older) -->thereforetheneuroplasticity capabilityof their brainsis greater and they can adaptbetteraftertraumaticexperience LectureTopic: Split Brain  Leftvisual field projectsto the right hemisphere; right visualfield projects to theleft hemisphere (always or righties, not100%forlefties); opticnerves runningfromtheeyes cross overat the opticchiasma  Split brain experimentsare always doneon right-handed peoplebecausetheir brainsare alwayslateralized (i.e. right visualfield will alwaysprojectto the left hemisphere) - If an object(e.g. a baseball)is flashedin theright visualfield andgoes tothe left hemisphere,when someoneis asked wh atthey saw, they can verbalizethe image becausetheleft hemispherecontrolslinguistics/language - If an object(e.g. a hammer)is flashedin theleft visualfield and goes intotheright hemisphere,when someoneis asked wh atthey saw, they will say either nothing, Idon’t know,or somekind of tool,since they cannotputintowords whatthey saw becausetheright hemisphereis n otin chargeof linguistic processing - It's not thattheright hemisphere doesn't knowwhat was seenin theleft visual field, it justcan'tverbally explain whatw as seen,butdepending onthetask (e.g. pointto/pickup theobject,theright hemispherewould be ableto coordinatethat) LectureTopic: Geneticsof Behaviour  Nature(something we're bornwith) vs. Nurture(something welearn)  Nature - Genes:strand-likemolecules of DNA - Linked on chromosomes - Karyotype:Genetic blueprint - In humans: n= 23 -->23 chromosomes (22 pairsof chromosomes and1 sex chromosomepair); Xy = male (y chromosomeis shorterthan X),XX = female - Genes in DNA codesforan RNA copyof nucleotidebases -->RNA copyprovides atemplateforprotein molecules -->protein molecules then carry outthe various functions ofourbody - The influenceof genes is through proteinsynthesis(in otherwords thereare nogenes directly "for"a particularattribute, justgenes thatinfluenceour attributesthroughprotein synthesis) - Somepeopleusetests of reaction times todetermineintelligence; apparentlyhighly correlated with IQ scores - Whyisn't Naturetheexclusive factorin determiningbehaviour? -->environmentcan influenceprotein synthesisas well; genes determine therangeof possibilities,but notthedegreeof expression (i.e. genes determinehowmuchis possiblebutnothowmuch is developed) - Genotype:set of genes inherited that residein yourDNA - Phenotype:outwardexpression of genotype(characteristics, behaviours,etc.) - Youcannotinfergenotypefromphenotype:outwardscharacteristics maynotindicateunderlyinggenetic contribution(e.g. hair colour) - Locus: locationof an allele on a chromosomeis called thelocus (plural is loci); genes thatcodefora certain attributewill al waysappearat thesamelocus on each typeof thatparticularchromosome,althoughtheactualallele of thatgene is notalways thesameon bothchromosome sin a pair - Homozygousalleles:bothalleles on thepair of chromosomes arethesame; Heterozygousalleles:the alleles are different between thechromosomesin the pair - Dominantallele:produceseffect in eitherhomozygous orheterozygous mode(e.g. brownhair orbrown eyes) - Recessiveallele:produceseffect only in homozygousmode(e.g. blondehair orblueeyes) - In somecases, it is notalwaysdominantor recessive allele thatis expressed,sometimesit is a blend (e.g. sickle cell ane miacan either occuror notoccur fromheterozygousform) - Polygeneticeffects: traits related to actionof morethan1 gene orchromosome 2 - Heritability:h = (variancedueto genes)/(totalvariance)  Nurture - CriticalPeriod:environmentalexposureat specificintervalis critical (e.g. white-crownedsparrowmusthear adultsongbetween 7th and60th dayof life --> if they neverhearit in thatcritical period they will neverdevelopan adultwhite-crownedsparrowsong) Lecture Notes Page 12 Lecture 10 October-09-12 1:36 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Genetics Evolution & Behaviour  Heritability Finish Chapter 4  Genetic Base of Intelligence  Genetic Disorders Important Points: How do I estimate heritability? Is intelligence heritable? What is the cause of genetic disorders? Lecture Topic: Heritability  Heritability: is an estimate of how much observed variability is due to genetic factors alone - h = 0.0 (due to environment); = 1.0 (due to genes) - It does not indicate the extent to which genes are responsible for expression of trait - It taps the relative contribution of genes to overall variation in population - If there is no variability, there is no heritability; h = 0 when everyone displays the same type of trait (no variability), but genes are still responsible for the expression of that trait - Applies to groups ofpeople, not individuals; not relevant to individuals 2 - h increases as genetic diversity increases - h decreases as environmentaldiversity increases Lecture Topic: Heritability of Intelligence - Family RelationshipStudies  Identical Twins --> 100% identical  Fraternal Twins --> 50% identical  Parent, sibling --> 50% identical  Grandparent, uncle, aunt --> 25% identical  1st cousin --> 12.5% identical  Intelligence must be heritable Lecture Topic: Galton - Hereditary Genius  1869: Galton started looking at the relatives (sons) of highly successful/intelligent businessmen - Found that the sons of highly successfulbusinessmen became successfulthemselves - However, he found that the adoptedsons of successfulbusinessmen did not turn out as successfulas biological sons - Galton measured simple motor and sensory abilities; believed that intelligence was unitary (i.e. could be captured by a single measure --> mental quickness) - Galton ended up developing the Correlation Coefficient, and discovered that he had disappointing results Lecture Topic: Sir Cyril Burt  Performed large scale studies of twins raised apart from each other  Believed that intelligence was highly heritable; developed the different educational streams that were used in England (i.e. university stream, vocational trade stream)  Reported that h was approaching 1.0  Faked all of his data; as a result some people were not let in to the university stream Lecture Topic: Bouchard's Twin Studies  Identical twins that were reared apart --> correlation coefficient of 0.72  Identical twins, together --> CC of 0.86  Fraternal twins, together --> CC of 0.60  Siblings, together --> CC of 0.47  Adopted siblings, together --> CC of 0.34  Same person retested twice --> CC of 0.87 2  h = 0.72; not saying that IQ is genetically determined though  Of the observed variability in measured IQ, we can attribute 72% of this observed variability to genetic factors Lecture Topic: Scarr & Carter-Saltzman(1979)  Important assumption of Bouchard's Twin Studies: there are no environmentaldifferences for identical twins versus fraternal twins  Absolute Difference Scores: - Identical twins (whether they thought they were identical or not) had less absolute difference in the cognitive and personality tests than fraternal twins (whether they thought they were fraternal or not) - Incorrect belief of monozygosity (identical) "leads to" greater similarity Lecture Topic: Genetic Disorders Lecture Notes Page 13 Lecture Topic: Genetic Disorders  How many genes? - Early estimate: 100 000 - After Genome Project: 25 000 were found  5 - 7 of these genes are "defective" Lecture Topic: Single Gene Disorders  PKU (found in milk) - Recessivegene on autosome 12 - Occurrence:1 in 10 000 - Lack of enzyme that converts Phenylalanine to Tyrosine - Not recognizing it quickly enough can result in brain damage and severe mental retardation - Effectively treated by diet  Tay Sachs Disease (results in a bright red hole in the retina --> eventual blindness) - Recessivegene on autosome pair 15 - Occurrence:1 in 3600 (in Eastern Europe) - Lack of enzyme that breaks down fatty acids - 1 in 30 French Canadians are carriers Lecture Notes Page 14 Lecture 11 October-11-12 1:46 PM Homework: Today'sTopics:Evolution & Behaviour ImportantPoints: MoreEvolution& Stats  Adaptation & Selection Isn't all behaviour due to genes ultimately? Read Appendix  Aggression How does adaptation work? Is aggression innate?  Weapons Effect LectureTopic:Tay SachsDisease  Normaldevelopment,then --> blind,deaf, unable to swallow  Muscleatrophy, mentalimpairment  Fatal by age 4  Results in brightred hole in the retinathat spreads, resultingin blindness LectureTopic:Huntington'sDisease  Rare dominant gene on autosome pair 4  Occurrence:1 in 16 000  Onset: 35-45 years  Effects - At first,clumsy & forgetful - Markedby progressivedeteriorationin: musclecontrol(chorea),IQ, brain atrophy, terminalin 10-20 years - Ventriclesin the brain becomeenlarged --> meaningthat muchof the corticaltissue has died/degradedaway to allow for ventriclesto enlarge  Note: - It is caused by a dominant gene --> offspring has a 50% chance of acquiringthe Huntington'sgene - Detectionis possible through gene mapping LectureTopic: Sex-Linked Disorders  Found on XX or Xy chromosomes(the sex chromosomes)  Sex-linkeddisorders are alwaysmore commonin men because they chromosomeis shorter,meaningit may not containenoughinfoso thatit wouldhavea dominantalleleto take care of thedisorder  Examples:malepatternbaldness, red-greencolourblindness, hemophilia  Normalsex chromosomes:XX & Xy - But therecan also be other strange combinations:e.g.XXX, X alone, XXy, or Xyy LectureTopic:Down Syndrome/Trisomy21  1 extrachromosomeon 21st pair (i.e.trisomy21)  Markedby: - Nervoussystem abnormality - Mild to moderateretardation - Shorter life expectancy - Physical appearance (Mongolism:meaningAsian looking face)  Due to accumulationof Amyloidprotein(also in Alzheimer'spatients)  Note: - Can alleviatesymptomswith intensecognitivestimulation - Not hereditary--> due to faulty meioticdivision (e.g.mother'spair 21 chromosomesdo not split during meiosis) - Incidencerelatedto mother'sand father'sage (at first birth) - Risk: about 1 in 1000; past 40 years old: 6 in 1000 LectureTopic: Adaptation  Adaptation:is all about changing to meetenvironmentalneeds; a very big exampleof functionalisttheory  Proximalvs. Distal Causes - Proximal:what causes this behaviour now (i.e.immediatemechanisms);e.g.emotionalreaction,info processing,phenomenological experience--> the vast majorityof psychology is concerned with relativelyproximal causes of behaviour - Distal:evolutionarycauses; what evolutionaryadaptations caused this behaviour;distal explanationsare all relatedto the evolutionaryhistory of a species(e.g.DNA, what gets inherited,etc.) LectureTopic:Tinbergen - What CausesAggression  Giventhatan adultanimalfightsoccasionally,whatmakes each outbursthappen? - exampleof a proximal question  How has the animal,as it grew up, developedthis behaviour?  How has the species we observe todayacquired the particularbehavioursystems duringevolution? - exampleof a distal question  Note: - Functional approach is verypowerful,although ultimately,everythingis due to genes(?) Lecture Notes Page 15 - Functional approach is verypowerful,although ultimately,everythingis due to genes(?) - However, phenotypedoes not imply genotype (i.e.cannot tellwhat allelesan organism possesses from only its outward expression of the genes) LectureTopic:GeneticDrift  Foundereffect: everygene variation/inheritancehappens by chance,not due to natural selection(e.g.South AfricanAfrikaner population arising from Dutch coupleswho wereshipwrecked)  Correlatesof Structure:other relatedtraitis selectedfor  Therefore, don'talwaysassumethata traityousee is theresult of naturalselection, otherfactors could be at play LectureTopic:Aggression  Freud believedthat human behaviourwas caused by certaininner "drives" we possess --> 2 drivesguided our behaviour Eros & Thanatos - Eros: is the positive lifeforce,causing us to be happy, cheerful,be withothers, procreate,etc. - Thanatos:the bad energylife force,relatedto death, causes harm and can destroyyou if you let it - Freud believedthat when Thanatos builtup in the body, it had to be "displaced" or released(e.g.feelingaggressive so you kick your pet)  Lorenzbelievedtherewas a drive to be aggressive; an aggressive instinctbuilds up over timeuntil "triggered"by external stimulus --> hydraulic model;Lorenzstudied animal aggression, but theorywas similar to Freud - Releasers or sign stimuli --> animal aggression is not random,it is caused by certainfactorsthat triggerit ( red belliedstickleback attacking another red-belliedsticklebackbecause of competitivemating season --> redcolouringis the trigger) - Fixed actionpatterns --> once the behaviour is pre-codedfor by the trigger,the animal responds aggressivelyin that way all the timeto the trigger,once the aggression is built up Lecture Notes Page 16 Lecture 12 October-16-12 1:28 PM Homework: Today's Topics: Review  Statistics Chapter 1-4 + Appendix  Distributions  Central Tendency  Variability Important Points: How do statistics help us understand data? How do you calculate measures of central tendency? What does variance mean? Lecture Topic: Leonard Berkowitz Frustration Aggression Hypothesis  When you get frustrated --> pissed off/upset/angry --> more likely to be aggressive  During your frustrated period if you have the right cues/releasers, then you will become aggressive  Doesn't just have to be frustration, can be any negative emotion  The Weapons Effect: if during your frustration/aggression you come into contact with someone negatively associated with aggression (e.g. weapons), you will be more likely to be more aggressive  Weapons increase the likeliness of aggression (e.g. participants in the Berkowitz study were more likely to deliver electric shocks after being exposed to a gun as opposed to those exposed to a tennis racquet) Lecture Topic: Movie Violence  Watching violent movies, playing violent video games, being exposed to violent media may increase the likelihood of being aggressive afterwards, especially more so if you are already prone to aggression --> study conducted by Black & Bevane of movie-watchers of both violent and non-violent movies and their feelings of aggression before and afterwards Lecture Topic: Statistics  Frequency Distribution: how often did each outcome occur during the experiment  Mode: the mode is the most frequent outcome in the experiment, easy to identify from frequency distribution  Mean: the sum of all outcomes divided by the total number of outcomes; the average  Median: midpoint of a ranked distribution; in order to find the median you must always rank the distribution (e.g. highest to lowest or lowest to highest) Lecture Notes Page 17 Chapter 1 September-11-12 11:15 AM Topics Covered Today: The Nature of Psychology Perspectives on Behaviour Chapter 1 Using Levels of Analysis to Integrate the Perspectives Psychology Today Psychology'sGoals 1. To describe how people and other animals behave 2. To explain and understand the causes of these behaviours 3. To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. To influence or control behaviour though knowledge and controlof its causes to enhance human welfare Text Topic: The Nature of Psychology Psychology: isthe scientific study of behaviour and the mind Behaviour: refers to actions and responses that we candirectly observe Mind: refers to internal states and processes (e.g. thoughts and feelings) that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable, measurable responses (ex. cannot directly see love, but can infer it from statements like "I love you") Different Types of Psychology Clinical psychology:study and treatment of mental disorders, many clin psychs diagnose & treat in clinics, hospitals & private practice Cognitivepsychology: specializes in the study of mental processes, especially from a model that views the mind as an info processor. Cogpsychs examine consciousness, attention, memory,decision making, problem solving. One cog psych sub-specialty, psycholinguisitics, focuses on the psychology of language Other PsychologySubfields Biopsychology:focuses on the biological foundations of behaviour. Biopsychs examine how brain processes, genes, & hormones influence acti ons, thoughts, & feelings. Also examine how evolution has affected psychological capabilities (e.g. language & advanced thinking) Developmentalpsychology:examines physical, psychological, and social development acrossthe human lifespan (e.g. some dev psychs explore emotional world of infants, others study the psychological effect of different parenting styles) Experimental psychology: focuses on basic processes (learning and sensory systems like vision & hearing), perception, & motivational states (e.g. hu nger, thirst, sexual motivation). Research in exp psych involves lab, with nonhuman animals Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology:examines people's behaviour in the workplace. I/O psychs study leadership, teamwork,factors that influence job satisfactio n, motivation, & performance. Develop tests to evaluate potential employees and to evaluate performance. Personality psychology:focuses on study of human personality. Pers psychs try to ID core pers traits and how different traits interact and influen ce behaviour. Develop tests to measure pers Social psychology:examines people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviour pertaining to the socialworld/world of other people. Social psychs study how people influence each other, behave in groups, form impressions/attitudes. Also study social relationships (love, discrimination, helping, aggression) Psychology'sScientific Approach - There is a commonunderlying scientific approach to studying behaviour - Science is a process that involves systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test beliefs about the natural world - Empirical evidence: is evidence gained through experience and observation, including evidence from manipulating/tinkering around with things and observing what happens (i.e. experimentation) - Scientific observations need to be systematic (i.e. performed according to a system of rules or conditions) so that they will be as objective and precise as possible Pitfalls to UnderstandingBehaviour - In everyday life certain sources of info can promote misconceptions such as: family/friends, works of literature, religious teachings, internet/media, our own intuitions (knowledge we acquire from years of personal experience interacting with others) - These sources mayprovide us with inaccurate info which can lead us to form inaccurate beliefs, because although empirical evidence is provided, everyday observation is casual as opposed to systematic (much more imprecise) - We often take mental shortcuts when forming judgements, which may serve us poorly (e.g. judging someone's personality based on physical stereotypes) - Many factors in real life simultaneously contribute to behaviour; we may fail to consider alternative explanations for why a behaviour has occurred, when it could've been another less obvious cause - Once we establish beliefs, we often fail to test them further, displaying confirmation bias (selectively paying attention to info that is consistent with our beliefs and ignoring the rest) Using Science to Minimize Pitfalls - In order to minimize biases and reduce pitfalls, psychs use many instruments (e.g. video recorders, questionnaires, brain-imaging devices) to objectively and precisely record people's responses - Several researchers can independently observe the same behaviours and compare their findings after to ensure reliable observations - Psychs use statistics to analyze the data to verify true correlations - To minimize erroneous conclusions, psychs use highly controlled experimental conditions and manipulate 1 factor, and use ceteris paribus. - Science is a public affair; when psychs publish their work, it allows it to be scrutinized, challenged, reviwed, and overturned by newer more valid theories and beliefs, reducing risk of conf bias. Therefore, one of science's strength's is that it is a self-correcting process. Psychologyas a Basic & Applied Science Basic Research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake (e.g. Two Formsof Spatial Imagery: Neuroimaging Evidence) Applied research: involves the application of knowledge derived from basic research to solve practical problems (e.g. The prevention of depre ssive symptoms in low-income, minority children) Psychology'sBroad Scope: A Simple Framework Text Notes Page 18 Psychology'sBroad Scope: A Simple Framework - Diversity of factors studied in psych can be simplified with a framework - Levels of analysis: behaviour and its causes can be examined at the biological level (brain processes, genetic influences), the psychological level (our thoughts, feelings, and motives), and the environmental level (past and current physical & social environments we are exposed to) - Mind - body interactions: the relations between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems. They focus our attention on the interplay between biological and psychological levels of analysis. - Modern research reveals that both nature (our biological features) and nurture (our environment and learning history) in addition to many other factors must be taken into account when attempting to understand behaviour Critical Thinking re: Behaviour - Critical thinking:involves taking an active role in understanding the surrounding world rather than merely receiving info - In order to evaluate the validity of a fact or claim: - What exactly, is the claim/assertion? - Who is making the claim? Is the source credible? - What's the evidence and how good is it? - Any other explanations possible? Can I evaluate them? - What is the most appropriate conclusion? PotentialCosts of Uncritical Thinking: - Misconceptions can add up and contribute to an increasingly misguided view of how the world works (e.g. $200 million annually for Baby Einstein videos that were falsely advertised as educational, money spent on astrologers, graphologists (handwriting analyzers), other fortune tellers) - Pseudoscience: dressed up to look like science, it attracts many believers despite its lack of scientific evidence Summary  Despite the fact that there are many subfields of psychology, topics studied in different subfields often overlap (e.g. cogpsych may study how wording info in different ways affects decision making, dev psych studies how children's decision making changes with age)  The scope of modern psychology stretches from the borders of medicine and the biological sciences to those of the social sciences Text Notes Page 19 Perspectives on Behaviour September-11-12 12:56PM Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Psychology's Roots Different Psychology Approaches Text Topic: Psychology's Intellectual Roots Perspectives: different ways of viewing people; part of psychology due to psychology's roots in varied disciplines (e.g. philosophy, medicine, bio and physical sciences). New perspectives are the engine of scientific progress. Sometimes the best supported elements of contrasting perspectives are merged into a new framework - Is the mind (the inner agentof consciousness and thought) a spiritual entity separate from the body or is it part of the bod y's activities? Early philosophers subscribed to the mind-body dualism belief (the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body) - Monism: (from Greek word monos meaning "one"): mind and body are one; the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. Monists believe mental events correspond to physical events in the brain; this belief implied that the mind could be studied by measuring physical processes in the brain, set sta ge for psychology - British empiricism: all ideas and knowledge are gained empirically (through the senses). Observation is a more valid approach to knowledge than pure reason - Medicine paved the way for psychology as medical reports linked parts of the brain with mental and physical impairments Text Topic: Early Schools: Structuralism & Functionalism Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements (the same way a chemist breaks down a complex chemical compound). Use the method of introspection (looking within) to study sensations, which were considered the basic elements of consciousness. Participants were exposed to different sensory stimuli (lights, sounds, tastes) and were told to describe their experiences Functionalism: belief which held that psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure. Structuralists --> concerned with the structure of the consciousness, functionalists --> concerned with the why, the functions of the consciousness. Influenced by Darwin's evolutionary theory. Functionalism endures in 2 modern day fields: cognitive and evolutionary psychology Text Topic: The Psychodynamic Perspective: The Forces Within The Psychodynamic Perspective: searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality (our unique pattern of traits, emotions, and motives), emphasizing the role of unconscious processes. Sigmund Freud developed the 1st and most influential psychodynamic theory - Freud reasoned that if his patients' symptoms (e.g. paralysis, phobias) were not caused by apparent bodily malfunction, then the causes must be hidden from awareness - unconscious - Freud treated his patients via free association: the patient expressed any thoughts that came to mind. Patients eventually described painful "long -forgotten" childhood experience, often sexual. Once the traumatic experience was "relived" their symptoms often improved. - ThereforeFreud was convinced that the unconscious mind had a large influence on behaviour --> came to develop psychoanalysis - the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces. - Also proposed that humans have powerful sexual and aggressive drives which are punished in childhood, leading us to fear them when we are aware of their presence, leading us to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. repression) - All behavior, whether normal or "abnormal", reflects a largely unconscious & inevitable conflict between the defenses and int ernal impulses. The ongoing psychological struggle between conflicting forces is dynamic in nature, hence: psychodynamic - Freud's work was controversial, but broadened the scope of psychology to include study/treatment of psych disorders Text Topic: Modern Psychodynamic Theory - Continues to explore how unconscious and conscious aspects of personality influence behaviour; however, they downplay the rol e of hidden sexual/aggressive motives and focus on how early relationships with family/other caregivers shape the views that people form of themselves and of others Text Topic: The Behavioural Perspective: The Power of the Environment Behavioural Perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions. Our behaviour is jointly determined by habits lea rned from previous life - experiences and stimuli in current environment; founder is John B. Watson - Origins of the Behavioural Perspective - experiments by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov revealed how learning occurs when events are associated each other (e.g. Pavl ov's dogs learned to salivated at the sound of a new stimulus, a tone, in addition to the stimulus which made them salivated autom atically, food - Learning is the key to understanding how experience molds behaviour - Behaviourism: school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning; argues that the subject matter of ps ychology should be observable behaviour, not consciousness; real causes of behaviour lie in the outer world. - Radical behaviourism involves using the power of the environment to change behaviour in beneficial ways - Behaviour modification: techniques aimed at decreasing problem behaviour and increasing positive behaviours by manipulating environmental factors - Behaviourism challenged psychodynamic views about the causes of psych disorders - Cognitive behaviourism: learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving us the info we need to behave effectively Text Topic: The Humanistic Perspective: Self-Actualization and Positive Psychology Humanistic Perspective: emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one's existence. Humanists reject psychodynamic concepts of being controlled by unconsciousness, and reject behaviourism's view of humans as reactors to the environment. - Each of us has an inborn force towards self-actualization, the reaching of one's individual potential. When humans develop in a supportive environment, the positive inner nature of the person emerges. Misery occurs when environments frustrate our tendency towards self-actualization. - Humanism's focus on self-actualization and growth is seen today in the positive psychology movement (the study of human strengths, fulfillment, & optimal living), which examines how we can nurture the good in society and in ourselves to create a fulfilling life Text Topic: The Cognitive Perspective: The Thinking Human - Cognitive Perspective: examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour; humans are information processors whose actions are governed by thought - Origins of the Cog Perspective: both structuralism and functionalism reflected the cog perspective through their approach to psychology - Gestalt (whole/organization) psychology: examined how the mind organizes elements of experience into a unified or "whole" perception; believes that the tendency to perceive "wholes" is built into the nervous system ("the whole is greater than the sum of its parts") - A theory by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget explained how children's thinking becomes moresophisticated with age. Cognitive revolution - a period in the 60s-70s where psychs were very interested in cognition Text Notes Page 20 Text Topic: Modern Cognitive Perspective - Cognitive psychology embodies the cognitive perspective. Cog psychs study the processes by which people reason, make decisions, solve problems, form perceptions, and produce and understand language. They also explore the nature of attention and how unconscious processes affect behaviour - Cognitive neuroscience: (which uses sophisticated electrical recording and brain-imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks), represents the intersection of cog psych and the biological perspective in psych. Cog neuroscientists try to determine how the brain goes about performing cognitive activities (e.g. learning language) Text Topic: The Sociocultural Perspective: The Embedded (within a culture) Human - Sociocultural Perspective: examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings - The Social Psychological Component: social psychs study how the presence of other people influence our behaviour/thoughts/feelings. Presence:physical presence (e.g. in a group), implied presence (e.g. aware that people at a future party will judge how you look),imagined presence (e.g. thinking you are being followed by an unmarked police car - Like behaviourism, social psych pays attention to how our environment influences our behaviour, but its focus is narrowed onto the social environment - The Cultural Component - culture refers to the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours, and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and passed fromone generation to another. All cultural groups develop their own social norms which are (usually unwritten) rules specifying what behaviour is acceptable and expected for the group (e.g. norms for responding to people of higher status, norms for how women and men dress) - Cultural psychology: explores how culture is transmitted to its members and examines psychological similarities and differences among people from diverse cultures Many industrialized North American & Northern European countries emphasize individualism(emphasis on personal goals and self-identity based on one's attributes and - achievments), whereas many Asian, African, South American countries nurturecollectivism (individual goals are subordinated to those of the group, personal identity is tied to the extended family and social group).Difference is created by different social learning experiences in childhood and continue in form of social customs Text Topic: The Biological Perspective - Biological Perspective: examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour (3 classes of causal factors: behavioural neuroscience, behaviour genetics, evolutionary psychology) - Behavioural Neuroscience - examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie our behaviour, sensory experiences, emotions. Led todiscovery of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals released by nerve cells which allow them to communicate with one another Behaviour Genetics - the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors (e.g. animals can be bred not only for physical traits but behavioural traits too, like - aggression in Siamese fighting fish) - Evolutionary Psychology - seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern human behaviour. Evo psychs stress that human mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolved along with a changing body - Natural selection - if an inherited trait gives certain members an advantage over others (e.g. increasing ability to mate or escape danger), these members will be more likely to survive and will pass on the trait to offspring - The notion that evolutionary pressures have stimulated the development of brain mechanisms allowing us to learn, think, socialize is widely accepted - Sociobiology: holds that complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as products of evolution (including aggression,competition, dominance). Sociobios argue that nat sel favours behaviours that pass genes on to next gen Comparison of Six Major Perspectives on Human Behaviour Psychodynamic Behavioural Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural Biological Conception of The human as controlled The human as reactor to the The human as free-agent, The human as thinker The human as social-being The human as animal human nature by inner forces and environment seeking self-actualization embedded in a culture conflicts Major causal Unconscious motives, Past learning experiences and Free will, choice, and Thoughts, Social forces, including norms, Genetic and evolutionary factors in conflicts, and defenses; the stimuli and behavioural innate drive toward self- anticipations, social interactions, and group factors; brain and behaviour early childhood consequences that exist in the actualization; search for planning, processes in one's culture and biochemical processes experiences and current environment personal meaning of perceptions, social environment unresolved conflicts existence attention, and memory processes Predominant Intensive observations of Study of learning processes in Study of meaning, values, Study of cognitive Study of behaviour and mental Study of brain behaviour focus and personality processes in laboratory and real-world and purpose in life; study of processes, usually processes of people in relations; role of hormones methods of clinical settings; some settings, with an emphasis on self-concept and its role in under highly different cultures; experiments and biochemical factors in discovery laboratory research precise observation of stimuli thought, emotion, and controlled laboratory examining people's responses behaviour; behavioural and responses behaviour conditions to social stimuli genetics research Pasted from Text Notes Page 21 Using Levels of Analysis (LoA) to Integrate the Perspectives September-11-12 8:17 PM Formulas & Theorems Covered Today: Biological Level of Analysis Psychological Level of Analysis Environmental Level of Analysis Text Topic: Psychology's6 Major Perspectives in the Framework of LoA - Biological LoA: the causes of behaviour observed in terms of brain functioning, hormones, genetic factors shaped over course of evolution - Psychological LoA: look to cognitive perspective; analyze how thought, memory, and planning influence behaviour. From psychodynamic and humani stic perspectives - examine how motives/personality traits affect behaviour - Environmental LoA: behavioural and sociocultural perspectives examine how stimuli in physical and social environment shape behaviour, thoughts , feelings Summary of Chapter  Several perspectives have shaped psychology's scientific growth; each perspective views human nature differently and focuses on different causes of behaviour  Psychology's intellectual rootslie in philosophy, biology, and medicine; Structuralism (basic components of consciousness) a nd functionalism (what is the purpose of the consciousness) were psychology's earliest schools of thought  Psychodynamic perspective (Freud's view) calls attention to unconscious motives, conflicts, defense m
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