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Ch. 9-13 Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

HUMAN LANGUAGE: Psycholinguistics  Psycholinguistics – an investigation of language functions, models, and brain relationships  Approach to Psycholinguistics o Divided into 3 areas: 1. The function of language 2. Models of language processing 3. Physiological localization of functions in the brain o In the course of our investigations we will examine the methods of study of language which places it in the realm of psychology o We will also briefly examine differences in the approach to the study of language relevant to psychology  This will require us to examine the evidence for 2 major views of human mental processes 1. Modularity 2. Connectionism  What is Language? o Basic hypothesis: Although every organism can relay information within species, only humans use language o To answer this requires us to determine what language really is o In human communication ALL languages have words that serve as symbols for objects and concepts o Words alone, however, are not sufficient to make a language o A more important feature common to all human languages is that they posses a SYSTEM OF RULES for combining words into sentences o BUT, are the rules only used by humans? o The answer is not obvious – properties must be determined  Properties of Language o Language is symbolic  Uses written signs, sounds, and gestures to refer to objects, events, ideas, and feelings  Words themselves are arbitrary – bear no physical resemblance to the concept to which they refer o Language has structure  Rules that govern how symbols can be combined o Language is generative  Symbols can be combined in infinite ways  We can keep making new sentences infinitely o Surface structure  The way symbols are combined within a given language  Consequence of applying rules to deep structure  Rules for = syntax o Deep structure  The underlying meaning of the combined symbols  Rules for = semantics o Phonemes  The smallest units of sound that are recognized  Ex. th and sh o Morphemes  The smallest units of meaning in a language  Consist of one syllable  Ex. hat and sick  Evidence for Biological Foundations o Human children begin to master language without formal instruction o All adult languages have a common deep structure o Infants vocalize the entire range of phonemes regardless of culture o There may be a sensitive period in which language is most easily learned  Bilingualism o Sensitive period for second language acquisition o Positive correlates of bilingualism:  Superior cognitive processing ability  Greater flexibility in thinking  Higher scores on intelligence tests  The Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Whorf, 1956) o Language determines what we are capable of thinking o Today, linguists believe that language shapes the ways we think but does not determine it  Thinking o Propositional thought  Expresses a proposition o Imaginal thought  Consists of images we “see”, “hear”, “feel”, etc. in our minds o Motoric though  Relates to mental representations of motor movements  Propositions – simple statements expressing facts o Ex. The sky is blue  Concepts – basic units of semantic memory o Prototypes – a hypothetically typical member of a category  Two major areas to investigate 1. Language and Human Evolution 2. Comparative evaluation of human and non-human communication o Only following these investigations can we begin to evaluate our original hypothesis that only humans use language  Language and Human Evolution o Human technological progress approx. 40,000 years – very short amount of time in the grand scheme of things o Short span relative to existence of hominoids likely due to language development o Notion that language development is also recent based upon comparative examination of vocal tract structure o Vocal apparatus in post Neanderthal homo sapiens is particularly suited for speech  Short rounded tongue  Larynx located lower in tract than any other hominoid o Two approaches to language evolution need to be examined 1. Continuity – development was gradual from systems of gestures and calls used by ancestors 2. Discontinuity – language abilities are qualitatively different from earlier forms of communication o Continuity approach is primarily supported by work of primatologists o Discontinuity approach is supported mostly by linguists o It is important to think of the two approaches as a part of a continuum rather than as completely different categories o Since none of the precursor hominoids are available for study it is not possible to gather evidence which would directly support or refute either of these positions o The best available test involves the assessment of language abilities in non-humans o If substantive approximations of human language skills are observed then the Continuity approach would be supported o It is important to note that failure to observe such does not entirely rule out the continuity approach as it may simply be a consequence that no existing non-human species is close enough to humans on the evolutionary tree to reveal the continuous aspects of language development  Comparing Human and Non-Human Language Skills o To make a meaningful comparison, we must focus upon the Universal Characteristics of Language 1. Semanticity – must convey meaning 2. Arbitrariness – no natural correspondence between the symbol/signal and the object 3. Discreteness – signals do not vary continuously 4. Duality of patterning – main signal (Morpheme) is constructed from smaller units (Phonemes) which are themselves devoid of meaning 5. Productivity – ability to recombine signals to produce unique utterances 6. Displacement – can communicate about things which are not physically present  Monkeys, Bees, and Language Universals o Vervet monkeys possess an effective vocal communication system o Bees accurately signal nectar locations through an elaborate set of movements o Intuitively one would think the vocal communication would be most likely to be similar to humans, however humans also use sign language – Thus mode is not a good basis for comparison – one must examine the communication with reference to the universals o Semanticity – both monkeys calls and bees dances possess this characteristic o Arbitrariness – bees dance lack this as angle of dance is directly related to angle of food source relative to the hive and the suns position. Vervet calls are arbitrary yet they do not show group differences in calls like human language shows differences across language groups (e.g., house vs. maison) o Discreteness – bees circular movement for near and figure 8 for far show this characteristic. Monkey calls are discrete. o Duality of Patterning - bees dance fails this test as it cannot be broken down into component parts. Monkey calls also fail as there is no evidence that the calls can be broken into constituent parts which allow for new utterances o This latter fact also rules out Productivity for the Vervets. Bees however, show limited productivity as they can signal locations never before signaled. o Displacement – Bees definitely have this characteristic although it is limited to location information. Monkeys calls do not as they are only uttered in the presence of predators o In summary, although animal and human communication systems show some overlap in the characteristics of language animal systems are evolved for specific functions, the degree of overlap does not unequivocally support a continuity view  Non-Human Language Learning o If language is not a special module of human intelligence but rather a learned process then animals with mental properties very similar to humans should be able to learn language o This would be strong support for a continuity view of language o Differences in human and chimpanzee vocal tracts preclude the use of human spoken language by these most closely related of primates so we must employ an alternative o Such alternatives exist in American Sign Language (ASL) or in the development of a completely artificial language where plastic tokens are arbitrarily chosen to represent concepts o Gardiner & Gardiner (1969, 1975) conducted the most well known examination of a chimp, named Washoe, of a primates attempt to communicate with ASL. Patterson (1978) reported similar success's with a gorilla named Koko o Washoe mastered several hundred signs o Demonstrated syntax by employing regularity of ordering in the use of the signs o And some instances of productivity – e.g., upon first experience of a Swan Washoe signed “Water-Bird” o Using Artificial Languages  Premak (1971) attempted to teach a chimp named Sarah to match plastic tokens to objects and to assemble tokens into strings to produce sentences  Sarah was able to string tokens together to obtain rewards, however she did not understand categories of tokens or specificity of ordering and thus was unable to demonstrate she had any knowledge of syntax o Savage-Rumbaugh et al., (1986,1993) employing a pygmy chimp (bonobo) demonstrated that a bonobo named Kanzi learned many symbols and was able to use word order to convey differences in meaning. E.g., Kanzi tickle Sue meant Kanzi does the tickling while Sue tickle Kanzi meant Kanzi wished to be tickled o In balance three of the studies seem to favour animal learning of language. o However, are there other possible interpretations or explanations of the animals behavior? o Often what appeared to be long strings of symbols involved significant repetition or could be explained as imitation of researcher behavior in order to obtain a reward (Terrace, 1979, 1983) o When fluent human users of ASL were asked to observe and report on Washoe’s use of ASL they reported that the chimps use of signs was contaminated by pointing and other natural gestures which if not counted would significantly reduce the several hundred estimate of washoe’s vocabulary. They also question did Washoe mean “Water- Bird” or “Water”, “Bird” o Conclusions: Primates can associate arbitrary symbols to objects o Current evidence does not support that language is simply an invention by our ancestors as a consequence of general intelligence o However it is still too early to either reject either the continuity or discontinuity views  Psycholinguistics o The fundamental question is: How does language relate to the rest of our mental abilities? o This is the purpose of psycholinguistics o In this endeavour we focus on human language in an attempt to determine the connectedness of language to our other mental processes or if language is a specific module how such a module would exchange information with the rest of our cognitive system. This is known as the Modularity versus Connectionism debate o Modularity vs Connectionism  Before we can enter into this debate we need to set some ground rules for investigation and for investigative topics or questions  Units of language – what are they?  Why are there paradoxes such as the word meaning/sentence meaning disparity?  Modularity vs. Connectionism o What effect does language have on our thought processes (the Whorfian hypothesis of Linguistic Determinism)? o A good way to divide up the research approach to questions like the preceding is to separate our analyses into different, yet interdependent levels: computational, representational & implementation  Computational Approach o Details of the Computational approach are based in Linguistics with the greatest influence from the work of Chomsky o A key problem is to determine the rules between input form and meaning o Chomsky believes the key to understanding language is based upon syntactic rules for specifying how words may be put together to make utterances o An Example:  The professors read the students papers.  The students read the professors papers. o The same words are in each sentence yet they have different meanings o Thus argues Chomsky the structure of the sentence as well as the words contribute to the sentences meaning o The examples indicate a basic situation in English utterances o The SUBJECT-VERB-OBJECT rule o However this rule is not inviolate  Ex. The students papers were read by the professors o Although this does not follow the above rule we still know its meaning  Representational Level o As psychologists we are interested in what goes on in the mind of the language user which would allow them to know that “The professors read the students papers” is the same as “The students papers were read by the professors” o One way to test the processes used is to measure aspects of behavior such as the time it takes to determine the meaning of a sentence o Thus the representational level comes in to play in inferring abstract mental processes  Implementation o Compare two possible research questions:  Do we use syntactic rules before we determine the meaning of an utterance?  Where do certain mental processes take place in the brain? o These are both implementation level questions derived from representational analyses o So as computational issues can drive representational investigation, representational views can drive investigations of implementation  Summary o Continuity versus Discontinuity  Although the continuity view receives some support the current evidence does not permit us to say this question is answered o Modularity versus Connectionism  Will drive the way in which psychologists investigate human language with analyses at Computational, representational and Implementation levels  Reasoning and Problem Solving: The Acts of Cognition o Mental representations take a variety of forms including:  Images  Ideas  Concepts  Principles  Cognition o Cognition consists of the re-organization and manipulation of mental representations in a goal directed manner o There are two major forms of reasoning we may employ in this process: 1. Deductive 2. Inductive  Deductive Reasoning o Reason from general principles to a conclusion o Useful process in forming hypotheses  Inductive Reasoning o Start with specific facts and try to develop a general principle  Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning o Distraction by irrelevant information o Failure to apply deductive rules o Belief bias o Mental set  Problem-Solving Schema o Step-by-step scripts for selecting information and solving special problems o The use of problem-solving schemata is an important aspect of expert knowledge  Algorithms o Formulas or procedures that always generate correct solutions o We can determine the most likely algorithm for a task without knowing the specific areas where the task is performed o Computers are programmed with 1000s of algorithms o Take a math example: if children are using a counting algorithm they should require more time to solve problems which involve more counting o If the amount of counting required does not affect the time taken to solve the problem then they must be using another process, for example, fact retrieval  Counting: how much is 2 groups of 5?  Steps 1. Count a group of five (IIIII) 2. Count a second group of five (IIIII) 3. Place the two groups together (IIIIIIIIII) 4. Count the number of elements (IIIIIIIIII = 10)  Fact retrieval: how much is 2 groups of 5?  Steps 1. Access multiplication table for 5 2. Select correct entry (the one with elements matching problem)  Heuristics o Mental shortcuts that may or may not provide correct solutions o Means-ends analysis  Identify differences between present state and goal state  Make changes to reduce the differences o Subgoal analysis  Take intermediate steps toward an ultimate solution o Representativeness heuristic  Used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept o Availability heuristic  Leads us to base judgments on availability of information in memory o Confirmation bias  Tendency to look for evidence that will confirm beliefs  Problem Solving o All problems either bear a resemblance to past problems OR are unique o For those Unique problems memory alone is insufficient to provide a solution o A solution here requires Creative or Productive thinking o Both Memory use and Productive thinking reflect Realistic thinking in relation to an objective situation o This may be contrasted to Autistic thinking which is determined primarily by subjective needs and wishes o In most instances some mixture of Realistic and Autistic thinking is in operation o These types of problem solving approaches fall into the larger category of Intentional problem solving o This type of problem solving may be subject to limitations on success based upon past experience or Habitual ways of approaching problems o One aspect of Habitual approach is known as Set o Set is related to the way one is initially prepared to appraise and initiate a solution to a problem and develops quickly if successful o We can demonstrate the effects of set o A special type of Set is known as Functional fixedness o This type of set prevents us from seeing new and useful ways of using facts or objects to which a specific function has been attached by Habit and/or Tradition  Functional Fixedness o Adamson (1952) demonstrated the effects of this special type of Set in a relatively simple experiment. o Two groups of subjects, each group is provided with the following:  A vertical screen, several candles, several boxes of matches, several thumb tacks o The task is to mount the candles on the vertical screen which may not be re-oriented o Group 1 received the components exactly as outlined and showed only a 41% success rate in breaking functional fixedness to solve the problem o Group 2 received the components with the matches and the thumb tacks in piles beside their boxes o 86% of group 2 subjects succeeded in breaking functional fixedness to solve the problem o The key was to perceive the boxes not as containers for matches or thumb tacks but as Platforms to attach to the screen and mount the candles on o This was easier for group 2 as the boxes were not presented in a manner which conformed to their traditional function as containers  Sudden Insight o The “aha” solution o You are so happy that you solved the problem that you forget how you got to the solution and it seems to have just come to you o This type of Creative or Insightful solution is less common than would subjectively seem to be the case o It is widely held that the relief or satisfaction of realizing the solution may serve to obscure the route that led to the solution  Duncker’s Tumor Problem o Duncker (1945) argued that problem solving consists of a series of progressively more specific formulations of the problem each based in part upon the previous reformulation. o Duncker’s Tumor Problem provides the clearest support for this view of problem solving o University students were presented with the following problem:  Given an inoperable tumor and a ray that at high intensities would destroy both healthy and diseased tissue, how can the tumor be destroyed with out damaging the surrounding tissue? o Responses fit a series of stages  Stage I - Initial responses were a reformulation of the problem in a goal directed manner I.e., “general or essential properties of a solution” Solutions offered here were not practical e.g., “desensitize healthy tissue”  Stage II – solutions with functional value – when X is achieved the problem will be solved  Stage III – how to achieve X o Stage II – Get the ray to the tumor without damaging healthy tissue o Stage III – a) Focus ray with lenses (not possible for X-ray) – thus reject – b) Use several converging rays each too weak to hurt healthy tissue but where they converge strong enough to destroy tumor. o This outline of problem solving is still the basis for current interpretations of Intentional Problem Solving  Intentional Problem Solving o Problem Solving Stages o In addition to Intentional problem solving some problems may be solved through Implicit Learning o Implicit learning refers to knowledge which is extracted from experience without conscious effort and may be employed to solve a problem intentionally  Implicit Learning in Problem Solving o What follows is a brief example of an experiment which demonstrates Implicit Learning and subsequent problem solving o You will be presented with a series of letter strings to memorize. Each string will be presented for 1 second. After the string is presented you will have 5 seconds to write the string down o The next phase of the experiment will present you with more letter strings. Your task is to decide if the string presented is legal or not legal based upon the rules (or grammar) used to construct the memory strings o To be successful on the task in Phase II you must have Implicitly learned the grammar upon which the strings in Phase I were constructed (even though you may not be able to state the specific grammar rules) o Now it is likely that some of you did not score above 50% in Phase II, but bear in mind you were only provided with 10 learning trials instead of the 100 in the original experiment o The grammar: o Important for two reasons: 1. Supports notion of implicit learning being employed in problem solving 2. Ties Chomskey’s hypothesis that language learning is Innate (at least at the level of grammar acquisition) to other mental processes  Classical and Operant Learning in Problem Solving o Both of these learning paradigms (Pavolovian and Skinnerian) are weak in explaining problem solving as they Cannot provide an account of either 1. Innovative thinking or 2. The breaking of Set  Computer Models of Problem Solving o In the 1950’s a boom in information processing and consequently problem solving resulted from the development of the modern computer o In this paradigm a “Program” directs storage, retrieval and manipulation of information to solve a problem o Psychologists quickly realized that there were similarities in the employment of the computer to solve problems and human thinking. o This led to numerous models of human behavior based upon the ASSUMPTION that a machine that can simulate human behavior can provide a GENUINE explanation of the behavior INTELLIGENCE: ITS NATURE AND MEASUREMENT  A definition  Theories 1. Spearman’s g factor 2. Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities 3. Guilford’s Structure of Intelligence 4. Burt-Vernon Theory of Intelligence 5. Sternberg’s Triarchic Intelligence 6. Jensen’s Level I and Level II 7. Cattell & Horn Crystalized and Fluid 8. Garner’s Multiple Intelligence  Assessment of Intelligence  Classical Assessment – Psychometric 1. Stanford Binet Scales 2. Weschler Adult Intelligence Scales WAIS 3. The Multidimensional Aptitude Battery 4. Raven’s Progressive Matrices 5. Porteus Mazes  Alternative Assessment 1. Reaction Time – simple; decision making; STM; LTM 2. Positron Emission Topography – oxygen/glucose metabolism  Distribution of Intelligence  Biology of Intelligence  Heritability of Intelligence  Sex Differences  Personality and Intelligence  Reliability and Validity  Intelligence – a concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment  The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence o Psychometrics: the statistical study of psychological tests o The g factor (Spearman, 1923)  Intelligence performance governed by:  General intelligence (g)  Specific abilities o Thurstone’s primary abilities  Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities  Theories of Intelligence  Spearman o Spearman’s g factor (1904) - a theory of general intelligence termed g o G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does o A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has a wide vocabulary, etc. o Thus g or general intelligence is a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasks o In addition to g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed s o S is the mental energy specific to a particular task o Therefore if you are good at math it is a combination of g and s o S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others)  Thurstone o Thurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities o Seven Primary Mental Abilities 1. Spatial visualization 2. Perceptual Speed 3. Numerical 4. Verbal Meaning 5. Memory 6. Word Fluency 7. Reasoning o Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another  i.e. A person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning o Although more expansive than Spearman’s theory it is not incompatible with it o Task analyses led Thurstone to believe these seven abilities were required o Many if not most activities require more than one primary ability o Ex. Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory and reasoning  Guilford o Guilford’s (1961) Structure of Intellect o Recall Spearman’s g & s o Thurstones 7 Primary Mental Abilities o Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors o 3 Basic: 1. Operations (act of thinking) 2. Contents (terms of thinking –words, symbols) 3. Products (ideas we come up with) o Within each basic category there are several sub factors o Operations are composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking & evaluation o Contents are composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral o Products are composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes & units o Guilfords model is conceived of as a three dimensional matrix o He postulates that at least one sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a task o Ex. Reading involves semantics (contents) cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations) relations, implications (products)  Burt-Vernon o Hierarchical Theory o Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within others  The Cognitive Approach to Intelligence  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory  Jensen’s Level I & Level II Theory o Arthur Jensen argued that existing theories were overly complex (Guilford?) o He proposed that all tasks could be measured based upon the degree to which they required Level I and Level II abilities o Level I is composed of simple rote memory  No intentional or conscious transformation of input prior to output (ex. serial recall) o Level II is composed of complex mental abilities  Input requires conscious transformation prior to output (ex. recall list in categories) o In this approach Intelligence would be measured on the basis of the types of tasks completed o The more tasks completed correctly requiring complex abilities the higher a person’s intelligence would be rated o Ex. in a multiple choice exam questions can be rated 1) Factual, 2) Comprehension, & 3) Higher order o Regardless of the IQ test employed higher IQ test takers should not only get more questions correct they should get more of types 2 & 3 correct  Assessment of Intelligence o Classical Assessment o Psychometric approach o These include Stanford Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes o Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial education o First scale – the Binet-Simon scale was issued in 1905. Became Stanford-Binet when revised for North America at Stanford University by Terman o 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty – child continued until a series of consecutive wrong answers were obtained o Repeated testing across many different children revealed that at a given age the majority of children got approx the same number of questions correct –a few got less and a few got more o This led to the first normative data set for performance comparison o In 1908 Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age (MA). William Stern (1916) indicated how it could be used in conjunction with chronological age (CA) to produce an Intelligence Quotient o Mental age is based upon the level of tasks completed by a normal group of children at a given chronological age o If a child completes the tasks normally done by children at age 8 CA then regardless of that child’s actual CA their Mental Age is deemed to be 8 o Binet’s Assumptions  Mental abilities develop with age  The rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time o Stern’s Intelligence Quotient o Thus if a child completes the tasks common to children 8 years CA and is him/her self 8 years CA the IQ = 100 o If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by 10 year CA but is 8 years CA the IQ = 125 o If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by a 6 year CA but is 8 years CA the IQ = 75  Types of Tests o Achievement Tests  Designed to discover how much someone knows o Aptitude Tests  Measure potential for future learning and performance  Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) o This was the first Adult intelligence test (Weschler, 1939) o The test is divided into two parts which roughly correspond to the divisions proposed by Burt & Vernon o Verbal & Performance  Each have 4 subsets of test items  Verbal – vocabulary, simple arithmetic, information, judgment  Performance – block design, incomplete pictures, puzzles, pictures to arrange as a story o Test produces multiple scores  A score for each subtest  An aggregate score for each major section  Overall IQ score  Multi-dimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) o Douglas Northrop Jackson II, 1983 o IQ measures on this test correlate r=0.91 with those from WAIS-R o Advantage is that it is entirely paper & pencil o This allows for the testing of multiple persons simultaneously – huge cost advantage o Also split into Verbal & Performance o Each section has 5 subtests  Other Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence o Cattell and Horn’s Theory  Crystallized Intelligence  Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems  Fluid Intelligence  Ability to deal with novel problem solving situations without any previous knowledge o Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences (1983)  There are 6 relatively independent intelligences  Linguistic, mathematical, visual-spatial – tested by current intelligence tests  Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, personal – not tested by current intelligence tests  Savants – cognitively disabled people with a striking skill in a specific area, such as music or math ability o Emotional Intelligence  Ability to read other’s emotions accurately  Respond appropriately to them  Motivate oneself  Be aware of one’s own emotions  Control one’s emotional responses  Controversy o All of the Classical psychometric tests we have examined up to this point have been subject to the criticism that they have cultural biases o Two unique tests have been developed to address this issue o Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Porteus Mazes  Types of Reliability o Test-retest ability  Assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants twice and correlating scores – same group must perform the same on the retest as on the original test o Internal consistency  All of the items of the test should measure the same thing o Interjudge reliability  Consistency of the measurement when different people score the same test  Types of Validity o Construct  Does a test measure what it is supposed to measure? o Content  Do the items on a test measure all the knowledge or skills that comprise the construct? o Predictive  How well does the test score predict criterion measures?  Alternative Assessment Techniques o Reaction Time (RT) Vernon o Assumption that as RT goes down, IQ goes up (more intelligent persons process information more quickly) – this assumption is in line with the assumption upon which speeded items in the classical tests were based  Reaction Time & IQ o Simple RT – subject holds down button and when detects light releases button; RT is time from start of light to release of button o Decision RT – subject holds down button and 1, 2, 4, 8 light array is shown; subject must hit button corresponding to number of lights o Simple RT and Light Decision RT  RT measures are inversely related to performance of classical IQ tests (r=-0.30)  RT goes up as number of lights (bits of information) increase o STM RT – subject are presented a digit string then a probe (single digit) task is whether the probe was in the original string  RT goes up with string size  RT goes down with higher IQ  R=-0.42 to -0.62 for RT & IQ o Speed of retrieval from LTM – task is to make judgments (same or different) about pairs of letters on either semantic or physical dimensions  Semantic: AA or Aa Physical: AA or AB  The difference between the RT for Semantic vs. Physical = Speed of Retrieval from LTM – the differences are smaller for those who have higher IQ o Does Intelligence Affect the Speed of Word Recognition? (Biggs, Mui, & Mori, 1988)  Two tasks utilizing the Priming paradigm  Stimulus 1 is either related or unrelated to the target (Stimulus 2) – When related it “primes” the target by pre- activating semantic information linked to it (I.e., the target)  IQ measured on subsets of MAB (Jackson, 1983)  2 Verbal - Verbal Comprehension & Verbal Similarities  2 Performance – Digit Symbol & Spatial  Task 1 NAMING  This task requires only access to the lexical phonemic representation of the target  Hypothesis 1: Targets related to primes should be responded to more quickly (the typical “priming” effect).  Hypothesis 2: RT should be quicker for high IQ  Hypothesis 3: Priming effect should be smaller as IQ increases  Task 2 LEXICAL DECISION  This task requires access to the stored lexical pattern in order to determine if the stimuli is an actual word or if it is merely a pronouncable non-word and then requires a binary (Yes/No) decision  Hypothesis 1: Targets related to primes should be responded to more quickly (the typical “priming” effect).  Hypothesis 2: RT should be quicker for high IQ  Hypothesis 3: Priming effect should be smaller as IQ increases  RESULTS  In both tasks Hypotheses 1 & 2 were confirmed (Typical priming effects were observed & RT’s in all conditions [related vs. unrelated] were faster for High IQ subjects (r = -.413)  Hypothesis 3 was confirmed only for the NAMING task (r = -.25) and NOT for LEXICAL DECISION  Conclusions  Low IQ persons (as measured on the MAB) benefit more from the “priming” of targets than do high IQ persons but only in the task which requires simple access.  This suggests that the benefit of higher IQ is in the speed of access to information as opposed to in the processes of making a decision  Other Alternative Assessment Techniques o Electroencephalography (EEG)  Hans Berger (1933) first investigated IQ in relation to EEG  Use recording electrodes on scalp  Stimulated visually, auditorily, & somatosensory  Analyzed evoked potentials  Priming doesn’t help higher IQ people as much as it helps lower IQ people o Positron Emission Topography (PET)  First developed in 1950’s  Involves injection of radioactive isotope  Scan Brain to see areas and degree of activity in glucose & oxygen metabolism  Applications – brain function localization  Identification of memory impairment  Scanning during administration of Raven’s  Have found that senile dementia involves lower glucose metabolism in Frontal Lobes  Have found Alzheimer patients show lower glucose metabolism in Basil Ganglia  Brain activity and IQ: Low IQ is on left and High IQ on right. Glucose metabolism indicates Low IQ are using more energy to complete task.  Standardization o Must create a well-controlled environment for administering the test o Normative scores (norms) provide a basis for interpreting an individual score  Biology of Intelligence o Intelligence may involve neural efficiency  There are moderate correlations between IQ and speed and efficiency of information processing in the brain  PET scans show that brains of highly intelligent people work more efficiently  Biological or Environmental Influences of Intelligence? o Ethnic differences - On average:  Asian-Americans score above white norms  Hispanic-Americans score at white norms  African-Americans score 12-15 IQ points below white norm  Heritability of Intelligence o Heritability is defined as the extent to which a trait will be exhibited by a population given that th2 population shares the same environment. (Denoted as h ) o h = how much of IQ is due to genes (perfect score would be 1) o 1 – h = how much of IQ is due to environment o Note: h does not ignore environment it says given 100% same environment a certain level of intelligence will be shown or is predictable. o Twin Studies o h = 2(r – r ) MZT DZT 2 o Perfect score would be 1 (e.g., h =2[1-.5]) o Heritability coefficients on the Multiple Aptitude Battery (MAB) and Simple Reaction Time (RT)  MAB – h = .906  Simple RT – h = .559  Biology of Intelligence o Heredity and Intelligence: Correlations  Relationship r  MZ reared together .86  MZ reared apart .75  DZ reared together .57  Siblings reared together .45  Siblings reared apart .21  Parent-offspring, reared by parent .36  Parent-offspring, not reared by parent .20  Adopting parent-offspring .19  Adopted children reared together .02  Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities o Males  Better at spatial tasks  Better at throwing, catching objects  Better at mathematical reasoning o Females  Better on tests of perceptual speed  Better verbal fluency  Better at mathematical calculation  Better fine motor coordination  Intelligence and Personality o Studied with “gifted” population o Terman (1925) selected 1500 students from Califonia school system with IQ scores over 135 (Mean IQ was 151) and followed group throughout life span o Termites – these individuals have participated or are participating in Terman’s study which started in 1921 and, supported by Standford, is ongoing until such time as the final ‘Termite’ either withdraws or dies (5 Volumes of data have already been published) o Characteristics as Children  Fewer birth defects  Better vision & hearing  Better health  Taller & heavier  Began talking earlier  Higher self esteem  More socially adept as adolescents  Reached puberty earlier o Characteristics as Adults  Average of 1 inch taller  Lived longer than average o Thinking as Children  Found abstract subjects more appealing  Discovered relationships between seemingly unrelated concepts earlier  Higher moral development  More independent  Greater use of mental imagery for problem solving o Achievements as a Group  Published over 2000 scientific papers, 80 scientific books, and numerous works of fiction  483 obtained graduate degrees (28 times national average)  95.8% received University scholarships  Most famous Termite – Richard Nixon  IQ=155 – the highest of any past/present world leader th  37 President of the United States, 2 terms as Vice-Pres  Downfall was his loyalty, but he quickly rebuilt his career  Died of a stroke in 1994 o Life Satisfaction Reported by Gifted Men and Women in Terman’s Lifespan Study  Data gathered 1972 – mean age of subjects 62  Joy refers to overall satisfaction with life Motivation and Emotion  What is Motivation? o A process that influences the direction, the persistence, and the vigor of goal-directed behaviour  Perspectives on Motivation o Early view: Instinct Theory – instincts motivate much behaviour o Modern Evolutionary Psychology – behaviour has an adaptive significance; we are motivated to engage in behaviour that promotes survival advantages o Homeostasis view – state of internal physiological equilibrium o Drive Theory (Hull, 1943) – physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to behave in a certain way (ex. thirst influences drinking)  Drives push an organism into action o Incentive Theory – environmental stimuli motivate behaviour  Stimuli pull organism into action o Expectancy x Value Theory – goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by the expectation that behaviour will lead to a goal and the value the individuals places on the goal (incentive value)  Motivation = expectancy x incentive value o Extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment o Intrinsic motivation – performing an activity because you find it enjoyable or stimulating (ex. hobbies)  Perspectives on Motivation: Humanistic Theory o Abraham Maslow  Self-Actualization  Pyramid of Development  Perspectives on Motivation: Biological  The Physiology of Hunger o Initiating hunger  Decreases in blood glucose levels are detected by liver sensors, which covert stored nutrients back into glucose  Drop-rise pattern may be a signal of “hunger” to the brain  In modern North America, we consume much more calories than we need because many foods are highly caloric (ex. 10 cans of Coke have a pound of sugar) o Stopping eating  Stomach and intestinal distention  Peptides sent into bloodstream as food arrives in the intestines from the stomach o Leptin – a hormone in the fat cells that decreases appetite (Hallas) o Lateral hypothalamus (LH) may be involved in stimulating eating, but is not a “hunger on” center o Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may influence stopping eating, but is not a “hunger off” center  Psychological Aspects of Hunger o Eating is positively reinforced by good tastes and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction o Expectations that eating will be pleasurable and will reduce hunger stimulate eating o Beliefs, memories, and attitudes about food can also affect eating o Cultural standards of beauty affect eating behaviour o Pressure to be thin in order to be attractive can lead to motivated (and sometimes fatal) eating disorders  Anorexia Ner
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