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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
PERSONALITY  Personality Beyond Freud o Humanistic, Social Cognitive  Major Theorists Definitions of Personality o Allport (1937) – “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his or her unique way of beings” o Linton (1945) – “personality is the organized aggregate of psychological processes and sates pertaining to the individual” o Cattell (1950) – “that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation” o McClelland (1951) – “the most adequate conceptualization of a person’s behaviour in all its detail that a scientist can give at a moment in time” o Guilford (1959) – “a person’s unique pattern of traits” o Pervin (1984) – “personality represents those characteristics of the person or of people generally that account for consistent pattern of behaviour” – ignores changing aspects  So, what is personality? o People differ from each other in meaningful ways o People seem to show consistency in their behaviour o Personality – distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting  Humanistic Perspective o Bugental (1967) – “humanistic psychology has as its ultimate goal the preparation of a complete description of what it means to be alive as a human being” o Margenau (1950) – "reality does change as discovery proceeds; I can see nothing basically wrong with a real world which undergoes modification along with a flux of experience” – Bugental’s task is now accomplishable because development is continually proceeding o Recognizing this, Bugental confessed that the goal was unlikely to ever be achieved as “the very process of describing the human experience changes that experience and that the more such a description approaches completeness, the more it is apt to be a basis for change in the very experience it describes” o A major aspect of humanistic psych has been the recognition that “man’s awareness of himself acts as a constantly recycling agency to produce changes in himself”  Bugental’s 6 Points of Humanistic Psychology o Disavows as inadequate and even misleading descriptions of human functioning and experience based wholly or in large part on subhuman species – cannot know how humans would react from observing unnecessary rat experiments o Insists that meaning is more important than method in choosing problems for study, in designing and executing studies, and in interpreting their results o Gives primary concern to man’s subjective experience and secondary concern to his actions, insisting that this primacy of the subjective is fundamental in any human endeavor o Sees a constant interaction between science and application such that each constantly contributes to the other and the attempt to rigidly separate them is recognized as handicapping to both o Is concerned with the individual, the exceptional, and the unpredicted rather than seeking only to study the regular, the universal, and the conforming o Seeks that which may expand or enrich man’s experience and rejects the paralyzing perspective of nothing-but thinking  Hadley Cantril o Excerpts from “A Fresh Look at the Human Design” o Man requires the satisfaction of his survival needs o Man wants security in both its physical and its psychological meaning to protect gains already made and to sure a beachhead from which further advances may be made o Man craves sufficient order and certainty in his life to enable his to judge with fair accuracy what will or will not occur if he does or does not act in certain ways o Human beings continuously seek to enlarge the ranges and enrich the quality of their satisfactions o Human beings are creatures of hope and are not genetically designed to resign themselves o Human beings have the capacity to make choices and the desire to exercise this capacity o Human beings require the freedom to exercise the choices they are capable of making o Human beings want to experience their own identity and integrity o People want to experience a sense of their own worthwhileness o Human beings seek some value or system of beliefs to which they can commit themselves o Human beings want a sense of surety and confidence that the society of which they are a part holds out a fair degree of hope that their aspirations will be fulfilled  Maslow o Hierarchal model – deficiency needs and growth needs o Physiological needs  safety needs  belongingness and love needs  esteem needs  cognitive needs  aesthetic needs  self- actualization  Carl Rogers o We have needs for self-consistency (absence of conflict between self- perceptions) and congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and experience) o Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat o We develop a need for positive self-regard o People usually place conditions of worth upon us o Unconditional positive regard is important – “I value you as a person”  Self-Esteem o High self-esteem  Happier  Fewer interpersonal problems o Low self-esteem  Prone to psychological and physiological elements  Problems with social relationships and underachievement  The Self o Self-verification – people are motivated to maintain self-consistency and congruence o Self-enhancement – tendency to gain and preserve a positive self- image  Personality Theories o Most personality theorists are not from the humanistic approach and instead concern themselves with trying to identify universal, enduring, and stable aspects or “building blocks” of personality o Some theorists define personality as types while others focus on traits o They also differ on how complex personality is as is evidenced by the number of building blocks they hypothesize and the complexity of their connections o Two major approaches distinguish the theories and influence measurement techniques  Idiographic: Extensive studies of individuals  Nomothetic: Studies of groups and broadly shared characteristics o Early Greek philosophers typed personalities according to four basic types  Melancholic – sad, anxious, pessimistic, gloomy  Choleric – irritable, short tempered, readily angered  Phlegmatic – sluggish, dull, calm, controlled, boring  Sanguine – cheerful, easygoing, slow to anger o A more recent Type theory based upon the three main body types was offered by Sheldon  Endomorphs (soft and round) – visceratonia = love of food and comfort, social, easygoing, agreeable  Mesomorphs (hard and square) – somatonia = desire for power and dominance, aggressive and/or assertive  Ectomorphs (thin and fragile) – cerebretonia = self-conscious, private, over-reactive o Trait theories are based on the notion that people are generally predisposed to act in a certain way  The traits and behaviours are organized systematically  Ex. Sarah spends a lot of time with friends, goes to a lot of social events, parties, concerts, and movies, belongs to hiking club and track team  Considered together, these would represent a trait of Sociability – if she is president of the club and captain of the team, she might also have the trait of Leadership  Allport’s Trait Theory o Allport noted traits cannot be directly observed o Based on inference from observed behaviours o Observations must be based on frequency of occurrence and intensity of a behaviour, range of situations, and reliability of measurement o Trait – “a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to the individual) with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive behaviour” o In other words, a trait is a readiness to respond in a specific way o The trait of Communist Phobia as determined by Allport’s research STIMULI FILTER EFFECT RESPONSE o Allport’s Theory is idiographic o Based upon his in depth research of many individuals, he concluded that traits were nested o At the top of his hierarchy were Cardinal Traits – few people have these but those who do are generally obsessed by them (Machiavellianism, Chauvinism) o Next are Central Traits which have a consistent influence on a person’s behaviour (neatness/sloppiness, industriousness/laziness, trustworthiness/deceptiveness) o Finally he noted Secondary Traits that do not have a broad influence on behaviour and could be considered to express themselves as preferences (prefer blues to classical music, vanilla to chocolate) o Note: this theory proposed 4,504 traits  Cattell’s Factor-Analytic Trait Theory o Personifies the nomothetic approach o He separated his traits into Surface and Source traits o Surface Traits are those traits that to a casual observer seem to go together o Source Traits are the basic underlying structures that provide coherence to personality and explain behaviour o Using Factor analysis (a statistical procedure) Cattell was able to initially reduce Allport’s 4,504 traits down to 171 o Further research allowed him to reduce this even further to 36 traits to which he then added another 10 for a total of 46 Surface Traits o Factor analysis of the responses of large numbers of subjects to the questions based upon the 46 surface traits led Cattell to propose 15 Source Traits o The results of this endeavor was the 16pf questionnaire o This is possibly to most widely employed personality questionnaire ever developed o It has been used in many cultural settings, with many different people and reveals specific patterns on a number of dimensions  The Big Five Factors (McCrae & Costa, 1999) o Openness o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism  Eysenck’s Model of Personality o Eysenck’s model is a combined Trait-Type model o He argues personality is hierarchal o The lowest level consists of Specific responses which may or may not be characteristic o Next level up are Habitual responses o Highest level is the TYPE which is based upon interrelationships among traits o Like Cattell, Eysenck also used a Nomothetic approach and developed the EPQ to facilitate measurement of large numbers of people  Biological Foundations of Personality Traits o Although all the theorists we have examined assume that personality has a personality has a physiological basis, only Eysenck has produced supporting evidence for the physiological bases of his personality types o The brains of extreme introverts are over-aroused, and the brains of extreme-extroverts are under-aroused o Introverts are more responsive to punishment while Extroverts seem more responsive to rewards o On a great number of characteristics, MZ twins are more similar then DZ twins  Evolutionary Theory o Where did the traits come from? o Traits have been selected for:  Physical survival  Reproduction of the species  Stability of Personality Traits o Little stability of behaviour across situations  This makes it difficult to predict behaviour from personality traits o Stability over time  There is good evidence for both stability of some traits and change in some traits over time  Predicting Behaviour from Personality Traits o Personality traits interact with other traits as well as with characteristics of situations o Situational consistency is influenced by the importance of a trait for the person o High self-monitor act differently in different situations, while low self- monitors do not  Personality and Health o Type A Personality  Demanding, have time urgency, high levels of competitiveness, ambition, aggressiveness, and hostility  The hostility component is related to coronary heart dieases o Type B Personality  More relaxed, agreeable, less time urgency o Type C Personality  Tend to bottle up negative emotions  May be related to cancer proneness o Optimism  Pessimists are at greater risk for depression and are more vulnerable to physical disease o Conscientiousness  Conscientiousness is positively correlated with physical health and longevity  Social Cognitive Theories o Locus of Control (Rotter)  Internal locus of control – life outcomes are under personal control; positively correlated with self-esteem; internals use more problem-focused coping  External locus of control – luck, chance, and powerful others control behaviour o Self-efficacy  Beliefs concerning ability to perform behaviours needed to achieve a desired outcome  Four important determinants 1. Previous performance attainments 2. Observational learning 3. Verbal persuasion 4. Controlling negative arousal o Cognitive-Affective Personality System (Mischel & Shoda, 1999)  People exhibit behavioural signatures, consistent ways of responding  Personal variables responsible:  Encoding strategies  Expectancies and beliefs  Goals and values  Affect  Personal competencies and self-regulatory processes  Personality Assessment o Structured interviews o Behavioural assessment o Remote behaviour sampling o Projective tests  Person is presented with an ambiguous stimulus  Interpretation of the stimulus will be a “projection” of inner needs and feelings o Rorschach ink-blot test o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Asked to describe what is happening in a picture of a scene o Draw-a-person test o Objective personality tests  Include standard sets of questions that are scored using a specific scoring key  Ex. MMPI-II, EPQ, 16pf STRESS AND HEALTH  Theories, Research, and Interventions o Develop theories o Conduct research o Engage in intervention to reduce stress  Program Evaluation Research o How do we know whether an intervention works? o Can we measure the effects, both intended and unintended, of the program? o Do the benefits of the program outweigh the costs (time, money)? o Is the program the most efficient way to use resources?  Structure of the Intervention “Experiment”  Early Childhood Interventions o Head Start Program  Initial results showed that head start children performed no better in school than comparison children o Abecedarian Program  Majority of participants were Black  Intervention from 6 mos – 5 yrs  Focused on cognitive skills  At age 15, children in the preschool curriculum had higher I.Q.’s (20 pts) and higher scores on standardized tests  Late training (5 yrs – 8 yrs) had little effect  Critical period of time at which intervention is most effective  More of the control group were held back a grade or ended up in special ed o High/Scope Perry Preschool Program  Studied African-American children in Ypsilanti, Michigan ( 2 groups – age 2-5 and 3-6)  Training in logic, math, music, language, literacy, creativity, and initiative  Preschool group had lower crime rates, required less welfare assistance, exhibited better academic performance and progress, and had higher income and home ownership o Penn Optimism Project – Preventing teenage depression  Helps children identify and reconsider negative beliefs about selves and to replace pessimistic attributions about successes with more optimistic ones  Initial results show a developmentally-predicted increases in depression for the control group but not for the intervention group  Intervention group showed less depression in general  BUT increases was seen after 2 years – emotional disorders are difficult to rid  Health Promotion and Illness Prevention o Many stress-related disorders have moved up to the top o Health-enhancing behaviour serves to maintain or increase health (Exercise) o Health-compromising behaviour promotes the development of illness (Smoking)  Stages of Change Model  Increasing Health-Enhancing Behaviour o Aerobic exercise – sustained activity that elevates the body’s need for oxygen o Dropout rates of 50% are typical in virtually all exercise programs o Factors in dropout  Low self-efficacy for success  Type A personality  Inflated appraisal of current physical fitness  Inactive leisure-time pursuits o Weight Control  Yo-yo dieting may increase the accumulation of abdominal fat  Such dieting markedly increases the chances of dying for cardiovascular disease o Behavioural interventions for weight loss:  Clients keep careful records of eating patterns  Clients are taught to take control over situational factors (antecedents) that affect their eating  Stimulus control techniques are used  Clients chart the amount of food they eat  Nutritional and attitudinal guidelines are taught  Obesity, Exercise, and Weight Control o 30% of Canadians are obese (20% more weight than ideal body weight) o 11.5% of adolescents are obese o 13.7% of children are obese o 23% of Canadians are overweight o 23% more are of excess weight o 70% of North Americans are inactive “couch potatoes” o Aerobic exercise (swimming, jogging, biking) is best as it not only burns calories, but elevates the heart rate  Provides cardiovascular benefits – lowers risk of heart disease  Reduces LDL cholesterol  Reduces weight o Regular aerobic exercise at anything from 60-80% of maximum age related recommended heart rate 3 times per week o Despite proven effects of exercise, only 30% of employees participate when employers offer a program o Exercise dropout rates are 50% within 6 months o General attitudes toward exercise do not predict dropout o Strongest non-personal predictor for exercise dropout is lack of social support o Dropout rates can be lowered if individuals can identify which factors are affecting their exercise desire and plan specific activities that can provide a post exercise reward (not eating high fat food)  Dieting o AVOID drastic caloric reduction as a means of weight control o Sudden weight loss causes a ‘starvation response’ once diet ceases and body begins to restore weight in preparation for the next starvation crises often by increasing storage (fat) by 20% o DO add exercise to Gradual intake reduction o Set realistic goal – 1-2 pounds per week  Psychology and the AIDS Crisis o Features of AIDS prevention programs  Educate people concerning the risks of certain behaviour  Motivate people to change their behaviour and convince them they can do so  Teach necessary skills  Give support and encouragement for the desired changes  Psychological Approaches to Treatment and Prevention o Aversion therapy is designed to condition a negative response to a positive stimulus, like alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs  Use of Classical conditioning, drug therapy (antabuse)  Problem – generalization to non-treatment settings, failure to take medication o Multimodal Treatment  Aversion therapy combined with  Teaching relaxation and stress management  Applying self-monitoring procedures  Coping and social skills training  Marital and family counseling  Use of positive reinforcement to strengthen change o Motivational Interviewing  Interviewer leads the client to focus on discrepancies between present behaviour and the client’s ideal self-image and ideal desired behaviour  Psychological premise is that this process sets up Cognitive Dissonance that helps to motivate change o Relapse Prevention  Lapse – a one-time slip  Relapse – a return to the undesirable behaviour  Abstinence violation effect – person becomes upset and self- blaming over the failure to adhere to the commitment to change  Prevention strategies – teach people that a lapse means nothing more than the fact that the situation has exceeded their current coping skills  Marlatt & Gordon’s Path of Relapse Prevention and Relapse o Harm reduction  A prevention strategy that is designed to reduce the harmful effects of a behaviour when it occurs  Ex. needle exchange programs to prevent HIV infections  Based upon modification of frequency and conditions of use to minimize effects (personal and societal) o Alcohol use and binge drinking is an erroneous problem on college campuses o More than ½ of males and 40% of females are binge drinkers, yet less than 1% believe they have an alcohol problem  Stress o Some define stress in terms of eliciting stimuli (or stressors) o Stress is also a response, with cognitive, physiological, and behavioural components o Stress is a person-situation interaction  The Appraisal Process o We appraise:  The demands of the situation (primary appraisal)  The resources available to cope with the situation (secondary appraisal)  The consequences of the situation  The personal meaning of the situation to us  General Adaptation Syndrome (Selye, 1976) o 3 Phases: 1. Alarm reaction – shift to sympathetic dominance causes increased arousal 2. Resistance – continued release of epinephrine and norepinephrine continues to increase arousal 3. Exhaustion – adrenal glands lose their ability to function normally  Stress and Psychological Distress o There is a statistical correlation between self-reported life events and psychological well-being o Three possible causal relations: o Excessive secretions of stress hormones can damage artery lining o Stress can cause breakdowns in immune system functioning o Stress may reduce health by contributing to unhealthy behaviours – poor diet, smoking, alcohol and drug use, sleep loss, cessation of exercise programs o Vulnerability factors – lack of a support network; poor coping skills; anxious or pessimistic tendencies o Protective factors – social support; good coping skills; optimism  The Resilient Child (Masten & Coatsworth, 1998) o Personal characteristics – intellectual functioning, social skills, self- efficacy, faith o Environmental factors – relationship with at least one caring, pro- social adult, connections to at least one pro-social organization  Factors in Hardiness (Kobassa et al., 1982) o Commitment – to family, work, hobbies with belief that what they are doing is important o Control – strongest buffer to stress – belief that their actions give them some control of outcomes o Challenge – view problems as challenges to overcome and NOT at threats to be endured  Factors in Coping o Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1989) – conviction that we can perform the behaviours necessary to provide a desired outcome o Optimism – optimistic persons are at lower risk for anxiety and depression o Finding meaning through spiritual beliefs – religious beliefs can also increase stress if one believes the situation is punishment or if it is demonic  Methods of Coping o Problem-focused coping  Strategies to attempt to deal with the demands of the situation  Used more by males o Emotion-focused coping  Manage the emotional responses resulting from the situation  Used more by females o Seeking social support `  Approaches to Violence Reduction o Removing the negative reinforcement of the violent act o Removing the positive reinforcement for positive acts  Reducing Anger o Teach methods for reducing arousal o Impulse control o Deal with the sources of the anger in more adaptive ways  Multiculturalism o All cultural groups should be treated with respect as equals o Cultural diversity is a positive force o Interaction between cultures is enriching to all  The Contact Hypothesis o The groups in contact should be of equal status o Personal one-on-one interactions are necessary o Cooperative activities that lead toward goals both groups want are important o Social norms must support contact PSYCHOPATHOLOGY  Definition and Classification o Neurosis and/or Psychosis: separate categories or merely continuum? o Definition: a mental disorder is a mental condition that leads to behaviour that deviates from what society regards as normal o What is Abnormal? o We are likely to label behaviours as abnormal if they:  Are distressing to the individual (because we place such a high value on “happiness” in our society)  Are dysfunctional for the individual or for society  Are deviant (statistically and/or culturally) for a particular society = Social Judgment view  For example, in our society, we are much more likely to use the term “abnormal” to classify someone who cannot hold down a job than for someone who is a compulsive worker  Historical Perspective o The demonological view – abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces o Early biological view – mental illnesses are diseases much lith physical illnesses, but they affect the brain (Hippocrates, 5 c. BC) o Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) – earliest known psychological laboratory in Leipzig (1879)  Tried to induce mild mental disorder in experimental setting  Used alcohol, fatigue, and hunger  As subjects became more impaired or deprived, there was an increase in responses to a word association task that bore little or no relationship to the stimulus words  Most important contribution was to try to classify mental disorders into a descriptive system  Based upon the notion that if mental disorders could be as accurately diagnosed as physical ones, then they could be cured precisely  Two major categories of disorders came from his work  Manic depressive psychosis: periodic alternations of extreme nervous activity and deeply depressed moods  Dementia Praecox: subsumed many disorders on the basis of symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, deficient attention, gradual mental and behavioural deterioration o Believed by him to be a result of organic brain damage (ex. metabolic) generally resulting in incurable insanity  His contemporaries, Bleuler & Meyer, modified this classification system  Bleuler emphasized the presence of psychological factors in Dementia Praecox and labeled this dimension Schizophrenia  Meyer determined that some physical symptoms has psychological origins and thus were more properly to be thought of as “Psychobiological” o Vulnerability-Stress Model  Vulnerability is a predisposition to disorders – can have a biological basis or stem from personality or environmental factors  A predisposition creates a disorder only when a person is subject to a stressor  Current Psychological Perspectives o Psychoanalytic view – internal conflict and anxiety o Behavioural perspective – conditioning o Cognitive theory – rational emotive therapies o Humanist perspective – growth direction o Social Learning theory – parental rejection o Constitutional view- biological and genetic  Psychoses o The term psychosis is used to describe serious pathological conditions in which a person’s ability to relate to what most people accept as reality is badly impaired o Two types:  Organic – senile Dementia, Alzheimer’s, or any disorder known to result from deterioration of brain tissue  Functional – those for which no organic cause can be isolated (ex. schizophrenic, manic-depressive, and paranoid reactions)  Schizophrenia o Type I – predominance of positive symptoms such as delusions and disordered speech and thinking o Type II – predominance of negative symptoms such as lack of emotional expression, loss of motivation, absence of normal speech o Characteristics of Schizophrenics  Delusions – false beliefs  Hallucinations – false perceptions  Disorganized thoughts and speech  Blunted, flat, or otherwise inappropriate emotional reactions o Subtypes  Paranoid – delusions of persecution and grandeur  Disorganized – confusion, incoherence of speech, severe deterioration of adaptive behaviour, disorientations about time, place, and person  Catatonic – muscular rigidity (Catatonic stupor) or repetitive movements  Undifferentiated – combination of symptoms from other categories o In Greek, the term Schizin means “to split” and phren means “mind”  The split referred to is between the thought processes and the emotions  What Causes Psychoses? o Constitutional – assess genetic ties to schizophrenia o Social Learning – assess relationship of childhood schizophrenia to family interaction o Biological causes  Genetics – MZ twins have higher concordance rates than do DZ twins; adoptive children show much higher concordance with their biological than their adoptive parents  Brain atrophy  The dopamine hypothesis  This view was still in its pioneering phase in the early 1980s  Study by Bean at the University of Guelph simulating the learned helplessness model with rats  Results showed the no environmental control rats had elevated levels of dopamine  Symptoms are produced by overactivity of the dopamine system in areas of the brain that regulate emotional expression, motivation, and cognitive functioning o Social Learning theory  Is it possible that schizophrenic behaviour is a ‘normal’ response to an abnormal situation? Maybe  Aaron Esterson (1970) The Leaves of Spring: A Study in the Dialectics of Madness  Esterson’s book was based upon the work he conducted with R. D. Lang on schizophrenia  Detailed study of a family of a girl diagnosed with Schizophrenia  Presents a case for her condition as “a logical result of family tensions and ambiguities” o Sociocultural Factors  Why is the prevalence of schizophrenia highest in lower socioeconomic levels?  Social causation hypothesis – people of lower income levels experience more stress  Social drift hypothesis – schizophrenia causes people to drift down the socioeconomic ladder  Mood Disorders o Types of depression  Major – characterized by one or more major depressive episodes (2 or more weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest and 4 or more additional symptoms)  Dysthymic disorder – a more chronic disruption of mood  Bipolar disorder – depression alternates with periods of mania (often referred to as Manic-Depressive disorder)  Bipolar Mood Disorders o Manic-depressive reactions are extreme mood disorders o Entering manic psychosis, a person is very energetic and enthusiastic o During the depressive phase, they may feel totally worthless and unable to do anything o In some instances they may have to be hospitalized and fed intravenously o Manic-depressive psychosis is not an indefinite state o Rather persons with this disorder experience it in Recurrent Cycles o Typically the Manic phase is approximately 3 months in duration o The depressive phase is up to 9 months long  Symptoms of Depression o Negative mood state o Cognitive  Difficulty concentrating  Feelings of inferiority o Low motivation o Somatic  Loss of appetite  Sleep disturbances  Loss of sexual desire  Sex and Gender Difference in Depression o Women appear to be about twice as likely to suffer from unipolar depression  Explanations include genetic factors, biochemical differences, traditional sex roles in Western cultures, stress, and loss o Are men just as depressed as women?  Biological Factors in Depression o Genetics – MZ twins are more similar than DZ twins, even when adopted; depression tends to run in families o Neurotransmitters – abnormally low levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine results in decreases in neural transmission and stimulation of reward and pleasure sites in the brain  Cognitive Factors in Depression o Beck’s Depressive cognitive triad (1976) – negative thoughts concerning the world, oneself, and the future o Learned helplessness theory – people’s depression is the result of negative attributions for failures that are:  Personal (“It’s all my fault”)  Stable (I’ll always be this way”)  Global (“I’m a total loser”) o Personality factors?  Paranoia o Paranoid reactions are much rarer than either schizophrenic or manic-depressive reactions o Much more dramatic o Individual maybe convinced they are Jesus, Napoleon, and be capable of presenting what, on the face, seems quite a logical argument to prove it – problem: the whole argument is usually based upon one or more impossible assumptions o The other common scenario is one of delusion – believes and “evil” group (BCE, BMO, CIA, KGB) is conspiring against them o Except for the delusion, the person is Normal in all other respects exhibiting little or NO cognitive or emotional impairment until someone triggers the delusional state  Neuroses o The current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or DSM IV does not separate behaviours as Psychotic or Neurotic o We are making this distinction in our examination because the difference that does exist is one of degree and many neuroses never become severe enough to be classed as psychotic  Definition and Classification o DSM-IV Axes  Axis I: Represents the person’s pri
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