LECTURE 1 4/15/2012 8:25:00 AM
Definition of psychology:
-study of not only humans but animals as well
-the mind is not directly observable therefore they are not available to
experimental study, but we can study the visible indicators of mind or
mental activity. These are a human and animal behavior.
psychology and the study of animals:
- 5 reasons in text on pg. 67
- to figure out evolutionary significance of behavior, has it evolved over
- study animal behavior to further understanding of human behavior.
(comparative psychology; when they compare human behavior to animals
-one of the most popular areas of animal research is psycho surgery, where
psychologists do surgery on animals to relate the brain to the animals
- lobotomy: connections are severed between various parts of the brain.
Most usually between the frontal lobes (thinking area) and the thalamus (pg.
131 ish… the busy traffic officer of the brain… receives info from the senses
and determines where it should go, bottom of the brain) so it is not possible
for emotional info to be sent to the thinking part of the brain to try and
render people less emotional, so they have less negative emotion…. This
would be beneficial for people who are depressed
- lobotomy was carried out on people in the late 30‟s with the reasoning
that they had been done on monkey and in situations when these monkeys
had been frustrated before the surgery post surgery they seemed less
stressful, thus “proving” lobotomy works? The predicted main desirable
effects were achieved BUT in too many cases there were unpredicted
negative side affects … both physical (people became obese and lost control
of bladder and bowels ) and psychological effects ( too often personalities
would change, lazy, apathetic, no initiative, and social behavior deteriorated)
-too little research was done on the animals therefore many side effects
emerged from the lobotomy procedure. Antivivisectionist- against the cutting of animals
Ex. Throw a piece of chalk at someone the stimulus is the chalk and the
response is too close your eyes. Or if your driving and the light turns red,
you stop. Stimulus is the light response is stopping…. But what if the light
turns yellow? Many things factor into the behavior you will emit, judgment or
thinking goes on inside your head whether to go thru the light or not.
-this model is not efficient enough
-this model brings in organisms
-they are saying that stuff going on inside someone‟s head is not observable,
and science cannot be based on and inference because it is messy.
-the above are only 2 out of the 5 (pg. 21-25)
-pos. that most psychologist take are that they recognize behavior which is
observable and measurable as opposed to the mind which is not.
- if you only measure that which you can you‟ll never discover anything
Methods psychologists use to study behavior:
-the first are descriptive methods:
a. field observation…the prof
b. naturalistic observation…the text book
- you are observing behavior as it naturally occurs
-the second are experimental methods LECTURE 2 4/15/2012 8:25:00 AM
Criteria for a successful survey:
-surveyors must fully understand purpose of survey and be skillful is
distribution of the survey
-methods of analyzing must be fool proof
-you must have a proper representative group of people
- survey questions must cover the topic uniformly and must not generate
unhelp answers, ex. Discriminating or bias answers
ex. Have you stopped beating your wife? Generates a bias answer b cur
always a wife beater
*what‟s the largest group of psychological practitioners *
-subjective tests are not fool proof
-if they are done honestly they are very useful.
-people who write subjective tests include lie scales in their tests, questions
which attempt to catch liars.
-the advantages of tests (subjective/objective) in that they are mostly paper
and pencil tests is that they can yield a large amount of information quickly
without disturbing daily routine and without requiring complex apparatus
-objective tests cant be faked
- biggest strength of experimental method is that you have control over
- we systematic intervention( descriptive)
- systematic observation (experimental)
- psych. Experiments mostly done in lab, they can also be done in the field.
- experimental method is a matter of logic not location
experimental has two major characteristics:
1. control- experimenters have control over the situation
- the lack of control in the descriptive methods is the biggest problem
Operational definition: pg. 39
- define something in terms of the operations necessary to measure it . -textbook also says expectations can effect the outcome of an experiment,
while controlling an experiment something u might want to control is
Control group- participants in experiment who form a base line for the
*on first exam… describe an experiment… Which is the control group, which
is the control group… look for the group that has the least gun to it… this
group is the control group.. they had less done to them. *
Double blind study- both experimenter and participator are in the dark.
Important so there cannot be no deliberate cuing of which group the
participant should be in.
Variable- something that can change in value or agree. Age is a variable.
Ideally a variable will change quantitatively, measurably.
-occasionally they change in an all or none fashion
*know the difference of independent and dependent variables on all the
two main categories of variable:
Independent variable- set, selected or manipulated by the experimenter. It
is called independent because changes in it are independent of anything that
the subject or participant in experiment does. Your in the investigation
because you are 20... nothing can change your age. Some aspect of what
the experimenter does.
Dependent Variable- called dependent because changes in it are
dependent on changes in the independent variable. The behavior that the
researcher tries to predict. Ex.What will rats do if you remove half their
brain? this is some object of what the subject or participant does.
Effect= dependent variable
Cause= independent variable Dependent variable is on the y- axis DOVY(dep. Vari. ordinate vertical y
Independent variable x-axis
-interpretation LECTURE 3 4/15/2012 8:25:00 AM
Learning, memory and cognition:
1. Definition of learning
3. Types of Learning:
a. classical conditioning
b. basic paradigm
c. related phenomena
Definition of Learning-
learning is referred to as a change in behavior which either warrant new
behaviors or doing less of something
we learn from experience
Arthur Jenson – published journal about empirical support for there being
racial difference in intelligence
Definition on learning: learning is that which may be said to have
occurred when there is a change in the probability in the specified response,
following cessation of a specified stimulus situation, excluding changes due
to physical growth (maturation) and changes due to physical or chemical
alteration of the nervous system. (Arthur Jenson, 1964 )
Examples of maturation:
- proven when ducklings hatch from their eggs that between 13 and 16
hours after their birth they start to follow what ever organism they are with
they become mature enough to follow what ever it is. This is called
imprintive, they don‟t learn this, it is innate.
- when maturation occurs for long enough the brain begins to release
hormones that go along with mating.
-there are some long term behavior changes we would never believe to be
-Association is the one phenomena that is central to all forms of learning
-from learning comes memory
-this idea is very venerable and has been around for thousands of years.
Plato created it “Plato‟s doctrine of association” -things which occur together in our experience, become connected in
memory such that recollection of one leads to recollection of the other
(Plato‟s doctrine of association)
- an example of this is thunder and lightening
3 types of Learning:
Classical conditioning : George B Watson
Class after midterm:
Stimulus Generalization: the tendency for the conditioned stimulus to
evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
Higher-Order Conditioning: a situation in which a stimulus that was
previously neutral (e.g., a light) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (e.g., a
tone that has been conditioning with food to produce salivating) to produce
the same conditioned response as the conditioned stimulus.
Response Generalization: the act or process of making a different- but
similar- response to the same stimulus.
· Fewer consequences
· Not under learner‟s control
· Involuntarily elicited
· More consequences
· Under learner‟s control
· Voluntarily emitted
· More complex
Pleasant Stimulus: · Positive reinforcement
· Added to situation:
o Behavior (ex studying)à reinforcers (ex good grades, praise, scholarship
$$)à more studying
o Increased probability of response
· Taken away from situation:
o Negative punishment
o Behavior (ex swearing) à punishment (ex grounded) à less swearing
o Decreased probability of response
· Positive Punishment
· Added to situation:
o Behavior (ex swearing)à punishment (ex spanking) à less swearing
o Decreased probability of response
o Negative reinforcement
· Taken away from situation:
o Behavior (ex not studying)à reinforcer (ex anxiety, bad grades)à more
o Increased probability of response
- association is between behavior and consequence…if you do something and
like what happens you do it again
- if the affect of our behavior is pleasurable you are more likely to do it again
- key to understand instrumental conditioning is to understand the
connection between cause and effect
- go over high order conditioning
Systematic application of reinforcement:
- skinner did thousands of experiments and developed apparatus called
skinner box, experimental chamber that contains a manipulandum, where
the person behaves… tube where water is delivered, tube where food is
delivered. Skinner box also has electrifiable floor so electric forces can be
sent through to deter people or animals from doing what the experimenters
don‟t want them to do. - using the skinner box he studied the way reinforcement can be delivered
Schedules of reinforcement:
- know 4 the text book talks about
- divided into two categories….
- continuous and partial
- continuous is every time you do this behavior the same reinforcement
- partial means sometimes the reinforcement occurs
- two types of schedules … ratio and internal
- in ratio schedules there are fixed and variable
- in internal there are also fixed and variable
- these schedules manipulate results
- with ratio schedules reinforcement is given based on a number of either
fixed or variable number of responses
- if your giving based on fixed, you would use a fixed ratio of reinforcement
- variable is a fixed number of reinforcements… but on average
Memory and remembering:
- the capacity to retain and retrieve information. (text book)
- skinners definition: the stuff your trying to retrieve. Retained learning.
- the process by which we retrieve or access memory is remembering
- refer to textbook to see the diagram
- 3 box model, been around for decades
- when stimulus info is incoming, it enters what is called the sensory
memory or sensory register. It exists only that what you are looking at
exists in your sensory memory for a second before it is replaced by mire
incoming stimulus. If you do not pay attention to the stimulus then it is gone
or forgotten. ( if you don‟t pay attention immediately ) if we do pay
attention it stays with us and the information becomes a part of our short
term memory. This means the information is currently in use. So writing
this down is storing the information in our short term or working memory.
Elaborative rehearsal is when you move something from short term memory to long term memory. If we are alble to focus on information in our short
term memory for a certain length of time you begin the process called
consolidation which may begin to store information into your log term
- Elaborative rehearsal, what your doing when your studying… its wen you
think hard about something that has meaning, focusing on it and giving it
attention as well as trying to relate it to other information already in your
long term memory. Forming connections or associations help to store things
into your long term memory.
- the hippocampus is thought of to be very important in the storing of long
- the hippo campus also releases a new protein which helps form the
physical basis of memory…. This process is called consolidation.
If people have really deep sleep for the first two hours and them had two
hours of rem sleep people showed most improvement
-if we are trying to get something from short term to long term memory, we
must also allow time to pass and get sleep so consolidation may occur. 8
hours of sleep is needed.
Ways to measure remembering ( 380- 381.. measuring memory)
- relearning, as the term suggest simply refers to learning something letting
time pass and learning it again to see how much more quickly you can
- relearning is a way to facilitate memorization more then anything else
- hernond embinghouse, psych has a long past but a short history. He also
was a pioneer of memory research
- in the context of relearning, he learned several stanzas from a poem by
George Byron… recorded how long it took him to learn them… 22 years later
he came across the stanza again and tried to remember them and he
couldn‟t remember them at all… so he relearned them. He discovered that
the versus he could not remember 22 years later he remembered them
much more quickly 22 years later.
- this shows why relearning is called a method of savings
- this incident cued Burtt, when his son was less then two years old he read
the same selections in Greek to him every day for two month, when the boy was eight it took his son 25 to 30 percent less time to learn these selections
as it was for him to learn new selections.
- relearning is the best way to ensure retention, engage in elaborative
- reason why cramming is such a bad way of studying is because learning so
much in few hours doesn‟t allow the mind to make associations with things
in every day life.
- recall, is the process of remembering learned associations without the
benefit of cues present at the time of original learning.
- sometimes recall is referred to as remembering something from scratch, or
the purest form of remembering
- the first person to study recall was hernond ebinghouse
- nonsense syllable, if learning something that is nonsense you wouldn‟t
have anything that is easily related to things you already know
- ebinghouse wanted to study pure remembering, something without the
benefit of cues.
- he first did a study with CVC‟s LECTURE 4 4/15/2012 8:25:00 AM
Motivation and Emotion:
1. definition and functions
2. Difficulties in theorizing
3. classification of motives
4. achievement motivation
1. motivation and emotion
2.theories of emotion
3. classification of emotion
-motives are inferred psychological references. We cant see or touch them.
We recognize them by observing behavior. They cant be directly observed.
- two kinds of motives, primary and secondary motives. These are broken
into two sections, learned fears and social motives.
- secondary motives are acquired
- primary motives are inborn
- David McClellan had a research question saying why do secondary motives
develop in different strengths in different people.
- eg. Why are some people afraid of the dark, why are some people the life
of the party, why are some people social, why are there people who are
- he was most interested in achievement motivation
- realized you need a way to measure achievement motivation
- he recognized his first task as needing a method to measure secondary
- he developed a research strategy based on two premises
- the first was under suitable conditions motives can be aroused.
- for example, when you haven‟t eaten much during the day times are
suitable for your hunger motive to be aroused.
- projective testing, asks the subject to interpret a stimulus that has no
- four ways of projective testing How do we identify emotion someone else may be experiencing ?
- changes in the pupil
- facial expression, this alone is not particularly helpful
- gestures and sounds people make
- Judgment of expression can be determined through cultural background.
- How level of emotionality may be inherited
- How one displays emotions can be learned through cultural background
- in some cultures it is expected that they scream, wail and hit themselves
when someone dies, whereas in other cultures it is expected for one to
„bottle it up‟ and not show emotion
- western culture seems to put emphasis on the mouth conveying emotion
where as the Japanese put more emphasis on the eyes
- if someone were to say you can only have one of the 6 clues to judge
emotion, a knowledge of the situation of which the person is displaying
emotion is the best piece of information one could have.
- the easiest emotions to detect are those which illicit smiling or laughing
Type of humor Situation
Arousal Serious even disastrous
superiority Socially unacceptable
- this table was developed by a professor at brock, named Anne Marie
- we talk about serious things in humor to deal with them, this is called
arousal humor. It has other names such as black humor, sick humor,
gallows humor or even morgue humor.
- some examples of this type of humor is a man looking into a gave where
there is a dismembered torso and he is with a British police man who is
pretty sure that the person in the grave is a serial killer, and the police
officer says well he looks armless enough to me now… LOL - this shows coping with something grim by making a joke out of it.
- the next type of humor is superiority, a type which is used to express
superiority. This is when you joke about socially unacceptable things and
getting away with being prejudice towards something.
- examples of these are jokes about politicians, or how many Laurentian
students does it take to change a light bulb… Sudbury looks better in the
- the last is incongruity humor, we find things funny because in the situation
there is an incongruity or in the situation what u expect and what happens
- there‟s a difference between expectation and actuality.
1. maturation and behavior
2. critical periods (a. emotional and b. cognitive
Maturation is the process by which the various part or characteristics of an
organism reach full development
what is the connection between maturation and behavior?
There are two ways only which these two are connected.
- the first is that behavior matures, this means that the very fact of
maturation guarantees that a behavior will emerge. The child must mature
to a certain point for a behavior to occur.
- the second is readiness to acquire behavior matures. Some behaviors don‟t
develop until we are ready to acquire them. If the opportunity does not
present itself then we don‟t acquire them. Three examples of these are if a
child is taught hard mathematic concepts when not mature he will never
learn them… even if u have the best math teacher teaching him. The person
is not physically old enough to acquire the behavior and must be presented
with the opportunity
- cortical readiness is needed for a child to begin to learn to read, the second
thing is the child must be presented with the opportunity to learn to read, the child must have the motivation, and the child must be normally
functioning and have normal perception
- in summary there are some behaviors which will only be mastered with a
combination of two factors, maturation to the point of readiness and
opportunity to learn.
- readiness occurs slowly but suddenly, for example a young child is able to
stand and hold onto thing for a while and suddenly begins to learn how to
walk within a few hours
- on average children role over is at age 2.8 months to five months
- on average children learn to crawl from 7-12 months
- pg. 533 developmental miles stones can change quickly when there is a
change in cultural care practices. Because physicians advise parents not to
place babies on their stomachs some babies don‟t crawl at all. LECTURE 5 4/15/2012 8:25:00 AM
- there may be times associated with readiness where it is optimal for people
to acquire certain behaviors. This suggests there are critical periods with
certain areas of development.
Critical Period: Relatively restricted period of time which is of particular
importance to the development of a behavior, a window of opportunity.
- Lorentz did the experiment with the bird, he imprinted a chick on himself
and the only living creature the bird saw for the first month of his life was
the imprinted on and he released it into this large compound and when the
bird was released it only did its mating dance for Lorentz and seemed
uninterested in the female birds.
- for children to form relationships with other people it is all dependent of a
period between 6 and 18 months
- study done in an orphanage by developmental psychologists who watched
a bunch of children to see what kind of relationships they had. Many were
either warm and the other group was cold group
- children in warm group came into care at 11 months old so had almost half
of their developmental critical period with their families.
- the other group had came into care just as that critical period for
affiliativeness had started.
- starting at about a year and 24 months is the period where children are
taught to control their natural curiosity
- children are often egocentricly aggressive in the 3rdyear of their lives, they
want stuff for themselves, they don‟