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Psychology 1000 Intelligence Chapter 10 Lecture.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psychology 1000 Ch. 10 Intelligence Michael Hua January 23, 2012 Intelligence  A concept that refers to individual differences in abilities to:  Acquire knowledge  Think and reason effectively The Psychometric Approach to Intelligence  Psychometrics – the statistical study of psychological tests  The g factor (Spearman, 1923)  Intelligence performance governed by: - General Intelligence (g) - Specific Abilities  Thurstone’s primary abilities  Intelligence performance governed only by specific abilities Theories: Spearman  Spearman’s g factor (1904) – a theory of general intelligence termed g  G is a kind of mental energy which flows into everything a person does  A person who is good at mathematics is probably also good at reading comprehension, has a wide vocabulary, etc.  Thus g or general intelligence is a type of mental energy which allows one to be consistently good or poor at a variety of different tasks  In addition to g Spearman also proposed that there were special abilities termed s  S is the mental energy specific to a particular task  Therefore if you are good at math it is a combination of g and s  S is necessary to account for variability across tasks (better at some than others) Theories: Thurstone  Thurstone’s (1938) Primary Mental Abilities  Seven Primary Mental Abilities: 1. Spatial Visualization 2. Perceptual Speed 3. Numerical 4. Verbal Meaning 5. Memory 6. Word Fluency 7. Reasoning  Abilities are viewed as relatively independent of one another  I.e., a person high in spatial ability maybe low in verbal meaning  Although more expansive than Spearman’s theory, it is not incompatible with it  Task analyses led Thurstone to believe these seven abilities were required  Many if not most activities require more than one primary ability  E.g., Reading – requires – verbal meaning, word fluency, memory, and reasoning Theories: Guilford  Guilford’s (1961) Structure of Intellect  Recall Spearman’s g & s  Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities  Guilford’s model proposed 120 factors  3 Basic: 1. Operations – act of thinking 2. Contents – terms of thinking – words, symbols 3. Products – ideas we come up with  Within each basic category there are several sub factors 1. Operations  Are composed of cognition, memory, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation 2. Contents  Are composed of figural, symbolic, semantic, behavioral 3. Products  Composed of implications, transformations, systems, relations, classes, and units  Guilford’s model is conceived of as a three dimensional matrix  He postulates that at least one sub-factor from each category is present/necessary to perform a task  E.g., Reading involves semantics (contents), cognitive, memory, evaluation (operations), relations, implications (products) Theories: Burt-Vernon  Burt-Vernon Theory of Intelligence  Hierarchical Theory  Thus unlike Thurstone or Guilford the abilities are NOT viewed as independent but rather certain abilities are nested within others Theorie’s: Jensen The Cogni tive Approa ch to Int elligence • Sternbe rg’s triarchic theory of i ntelligence Type s of Int ellectual Com petence Analytical Practical Cre ative intelligenc intelligenc intelligenc Perfor man ce Metac omp onents comp onents Know ledge - Execute strategies Acquisition Plan a nd re gul ate specified by comp onents Task be havi ur metacom pone nts Encode and s tore inform at on Unde rlying Cogni tive Proc esses  Jensen’s Level I & Level II Theory  Arthur Jensen argued that existing theories were overly complex (Guilford?)  He proposed that all tasks could be measured based upon the degree to which they required Level I and Level II abilities  Level I is composed of simple rote memory  No intentional or conscious transformation of input prior to output (e.g., serial recall)  Level II is composed of complex mental abilities  Input requires conscious transformation prior to output (e.g., recall list in categories)  In this approach Intelligence would be measured on the basis of the types of tasks completed  The more tasks completed correctly requiring complex abilities the higher a person’s intelligence would be rated  E.g., in a multiple choice exam questions can be rated 1. Factual 2. Comprehension 3. Higher Order  Regardless of the IQ test employed higher IQ test takers should not only get more questions correctly, they should get more of types 2 & 3 correct Assessment of Intelligence  Classical Assessment  Psychometric Approach  These include Stanford-Binet, WAIS, MAB, Raven’s matrices, Porteus Mazes  Binet scales were developed to originally provide assessment of children in France for the purpose of identifying those in need of remedial education  First Scale – the Binet-Simon scale was issued in 1905. Became Stanford-Binet when revised for North America at Stanford University by Terman  30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty – child continued a series of consecutive wrong answers were obtained  Repeated testing across many different children revealed that at a given age, the majority of children got approximately the same number of questions correct – a few got less and a few got more  This led to the first normative data set for performance comparison  In 1908 Binet introduced the concept of Mental Age (MA). William Stern (1916) indicated how it could be used in conjunction with chronological age (CA) to produce an Intelligence Quotient  Mental Age is based upon the level of tasks completed by a normal group of children a given chronological age  If a child completes the tasks normally done by children at age 8 CA, then regardless of that child’s actual CA, their Mental Age is deemed to be 8 Intelligence  Binet’s Assumptions:  Mental abilities develop with age  The rate at which people gain mental competence is characteristic of the person and is constant over time  Stern’s Intelligence Quotient  IQ = (MA/CA) x 100  Thus, if a child completes the tasks common to children 8 years CA and is him/her self 8 years CA the IQ = 100  If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by 10 year CA but is 8 years CA, the IQ = 125  If the child completes the tasks commonly completed by a 6 year CA but is 8 years CA, the IQ = 75  Types of Tests:  Achievement Tests – designed to discover how much someone knows  Aptitude Tests – Measures potential for future learning and performance Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)  This was the first Adult intelligence test (Weschler, 1939)  The test is divided into two parts which roughly correspond to the divisions proposed by Burt & Vernon  Verbal and Performance  Each have 4 Subsets of test items  Verbal - Vocabulary - Simple arithmetic - Information - Judgment  Performance - Block Design - Incomplete pictures - Puzzles - Pictures to arrange as a story  Test produces multiple scores  A test for each subtest  An aggregate score for each major section  Overall IQ score Multi-Dimensional Aptitude Batter (MAP)  Douglas Northrop Jackson II (1929-2004)  MAB (Jackson, 1983)  IQ measures on this test correlate r=0.91 with those form the WAIS-R  Advantage is that it is entirely paper & pencil  This allows for the testing of multiple persons simultaneously a huge cost advantage for users  Also split into 2 sections – Verbal & Performance  Each section has 5 subsets vs. the 4 in the WAIS Other Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence  Cattell and Horn’s Theory  Crystallized Intelligence – Ability to apply previously learned knowledge to current problems  Fluid Intelligence – Ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations without any previous knowledge  Garner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligences  There are six relatively independent intelligences 1. Linguistic mathematical, visual-spatial - Tested by current intelligence tests 2. Musical, body-kinesthetic, personal - Not tested by current intelligence tests  Savants – Cognitively disabled people with a striking skill in a specific area, like music or math ability  Emotional Intelligence  Ability to read others’ emotions accurately  Respond accurately to them  Motivate oneself  Be aware of one’s own em
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