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Motivation Chapter 11 Lecture.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psychology 1000 Chapter 11 Motivation and Behavior Michael Hua What is Motivation?  A process that influences:  The direction  The persistence  The vigour of goal-directed behavior Perspectives on Motivation  Early View: Instinct Theory  Instincts motivate much behavior  Modern Evolutionary Psychology  Adaptive Significance: We are motivated to engage in behavior that promotes survival advantages  Homeostasis  State of internal physiological equilibrium  Drive Theory (Hull, 1943, 1951)  Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives to behave in a certain way (e.g., thirst influences drinking)  “Pushes” organism into action  Incentive Theory  Environmental stimuli motivate behavior  “Pulls” organism into action  Expectancy x Value Theory  Goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by expectation that behavior will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on the goal (incentive value)  Motivation = expectancy x Incentive value  Extrinsic Motivation  Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment  Intrinsic Motivation  Performing an activity because you find it enjoyable or stimulating Humanistic Theory: Self Actualization Bi ol og ical Perspective The Physiology of Hunger  Initiating Hunger  Decreases in blood glucose levels are detected by liver sensors, which convert stored nutrients back into glucose  Drop-rise pattern may be a signal of “hunger” to the brain  Stopping Eating  Stomach and intestinal distention  Peptides sent into bloodstream as food arrives in intestines from the stomach  Leptin: a hormone in the fat cells that decreases appetite (Halaas et al., 1995)  Lateral hypothalamus (LH) - may be involved in stimulating eating, but it is not a “hunger on” center  Ventomedial hypothalamus (VMH) - may influence stopping eating, but it is not a “hunger off center Psychological Aspects of Hunger  Eating is positively reinforced by good tastes and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction  Expectations that eating will be pleasurable and will reduce hunger stimulate eating  Beliefs, memories, and attitudes about food can also affect eating  Pressures for thinness  Cultural standards of beauty  Overestimation of thinness for attractiveness  Viewing the body as an object (Frederickson & Roberts, 1997)  Environmental and cultural factors affecting eating  Food variety  Smell and sight of food (classical conditioned)  Presence of others  Familiarity of food Anorexia Nervosa  Have an intense fear of being fat  Severely restrict food intake to the point of self-starvation  Are often perfectionistic and have distorted standards about thinness  Have a need for control  Show abnormal activity of serotonin (helps regulate eating) Bulimia  Are over concerned about being fat  Binge eat and then purge food, usually by vomiting or by using laxatives  Tend to be depressed, anxious, have low impulse control  Lack a stable sense of personal identity and self-sufficiency  Bulimia may be triggered by life stress Causes of Obesity  Genes  Appear to account for 40-70% of the variation in body mass among women and among men  Access to high-fat foods  Cultural emphasis on “the best value”  Encouragement of a sedentary lifestyle Sensation Seeking  The motivation to seek out stimulation and novelty  High sensation-seekers have a less “reactive” nervous system than low sensation-seekers Sexual Motivation: The Physiology of Sex  Sexual Response Cycle  Excitement Phase – blood flows to arteries in genital organs, nipples, and breasts  Plateau Phase – respiration, heart rate, and muscle tension build  Orgasm Phase  Resolution Phase – physiological arousal decreases  Factors in arousal:  Sexual fantasy  Expectations  Stress  Fatigue  Anger  Performance Anxiety  Cultural Norms  Arousing Stimuli Sexual Motivation: Sexual Orientation  Evidence for genetic factors  Concordance rates are higher among MZ than among DZ twins or adoptive brothers (Bailey et al., 1993)  Altering animals’ exposure to prenatal hormones can influence sexual orientation (Collaer & Hines, 1995)  Limitation: Findings are correlational, and environmental factors likely also contribute Achievement Motivation  People are motivated to succeed because of:  Motive for Success  Fear of Failure  College students with a high need for success focus on:  Mastery goals  Competitive goals  Cultural influences:  Individualistic Cultures – stress personal achievement (e.g., Canada, USA, Western Europe)  Collectivistic Cultures – Meet expectations of family and social group (e.g., China, Japan) Motivation in the Workplace  Why do people work?  Money (Taylor, 1911)  Personal Accomplishment - Mastery - Growth - Satisfying interpersonal relationships  Influencing Work Motivation  Job Enrichment programs  Modifying External Incentives  Management by Objectives (MBO) - Goal Setting - Employee Participation - Objective Feedback Motivational Conflicts  Approach-Approach  Opposition between two attractive alternatives  Avoidance-Avoidance  Two undesirable alternatives  Approach-Avoidance  Being attracted to and repell
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