11/15/2011 8:02:00 AM
Chapter 6 Questions
1. There are three basic characteristics of consciousness:
A) It’s private- No other person can understand the way you perceive the
world around you. Likewise, you can’t perceive how others do (we’re all a
mystery to each other).
B) It’s ever-changing- Everyday we transfer in and out of many different
states of consciousness.
C) We’re aware of it- No matter what state we are in we are aware of our
D) Connected to selective attention.
2. Psychologists measure consciousness in the following ways:
Self-report- this method gives psychologists detailed insights into subjective
experiences, but can be flawed because there is no way of verifying the
Physiological measures- using EEG scans to measure brain activity in
different states of consciousness allows psychologists to characterize them.
Behavioural measures- this method uses experiments such as the rouge test
to determine whether certain things are consciously recognized by the
3. Freud’s explanation of consciousness consisted of three levels:
A) Conscious Stuff we are currently aware of
B) Preconscious Stuff we are not currently aware of, but can be easily
recalled if triggered by stimulus.
C) Unconscious Things we are not conscious/aware of 4. The cognitive perspective believes that the unconscious and conscious
states are compliments. Put simply, they work as a team and guide us
together through many daily functions.
5. Automatic processing occurs when activities require little to no conscious
effort. Common among thoroughly practiced movements. It is important
because it helps us to do many things without having to consciously think
about them and takes the mental factor our of things.
6. Yes, it has been proven that unconscious stimulus can greatly influence
7. The modular model of the mind describes the mind as a bunch of deeply
interconnected networks of information that take information from each
other to create their own information. So, using this point of view,
consciousness arises through all of these smaller modules working together
to form a state of consciousness.
8. The brain’s SCN regulates circadian rhythm’s by causing the pineal gland
to secrete melatonin, a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the human
body. However, the environment also plays a very important role. Our eyes
have sensory connections to the SCN and it’s a lack of daylight that causes
the SCN to stimulate the pineal gland.
9. If someone wasn’t exposed to a regular night-day cycle they would fall
into a free running circadian rhythm. A free running rhythm is characterized
by a lack of stimuli to control the secretions of melatonin. For example, if
someone was living in a pitch black cave or in permanent daylight they
would most likely suffer from free running circadian rhythms.
10. SAD- daylight becomes less and less as the winter months are ushered
in. This greatly effects some people’s circadian rhythms because the amount
of daylight received is much less, thereby stimulating more regular release
of melatonin. Jetlag- flying over many time zones can have a negative effect on us
because it is directly throwing off our circadian rhythms by either
lengthening/shortening our days.
Nigh shift-work- completely switching around our circadian rhythms can be
very difficult. Often on days off night workers go back to regular rhythms
and completely throw themselves off again and again.
11. Phototherapy is used to treat SAD, it consists of exposure to artificial
daylight to increase wakefulness and decrease depression.
12. Awake (and REM)- Beta Waves
Stage 1- Theta waves
Stage 2- Appearance of sleep spindles
Stage 3- Appearance of delta waves
Stage 4- All delta waves
- Rapid eye movement
- Genital arousal
- REM paralysis
- Vivid dreaming
- Beta waves
14. Areas at the base of the forebrain help to induce sleep, while the
reticular formation/pons is responsible for initiating REM sleep.
15. Three changes:
A) We sleep less- an infant sleeps 16 hours whereas a teen sleeps an
average of 8 hours per night.
B) Less REM- amount of time spent in REM decreases substantially over
infancy and early childhood but remains steady thereafter.
C) Sleep lighter- as we grow older, th