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Chapter 9 Language and Thinking.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 9 Language and ThinkingLanguageLanguage consist of system of symbols and rules for combining them in ways to make messages and meaningsPsycholinguistics scientific study of psychological aspect of languageHuman thought and behavior depend a lot on physical structure of brainLanguage helped people gather and form social units o Made it easier to communicate and live in social groupsProperties of language o Symbolic o Structured o RulegovernedGrammar set of rules that tell how symbols are combined to create meaningSyntax rules for order of words o Convey meaningSemantics meaning of words and sentences o GenerativeGenerativity symbols of language combined to make infinite number of massages that have meaning o DisplacementAllow us to communicate about stuff that isnt physically presentStructure of language o Surface structure symbols that are used and the order o Deep structure underlying meaning of combined symbols o Phoneme smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaningNo meaning by itself but combined to create morphemes o Morpheme combination of phonemesCo mbined to create words o Discourse sentences combined into paragraphs articlesetc o Understanding Language o Bottomup Processing individual elements analyzed then combined to get perception o Top down processing information interpreted with existing knowledge o Speech segmentation knowing where each word in spoken sentence begin and endsUse certain sequences of phonemes that we know are unlikely to be in same word to know them as beginning or endings of adjacent wordUse context o PollackPickett conversations of femalemale
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