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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psych 1000: Chapter 3 THE BRAIN • Structure • Function • Lateralization • NATURE-NURTURE • HEALING THE BRAIN • ENDOCRINE SYSTEM • THE IMMUNE SYSTEM  Dr. Fazakas-DeHoog [email protected] SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 1. The branch of the nervous system that is responsible for increasing pulse & heart rate, and preparing us for action is the: A. The central nervous system B. The somatic nervous system C. The sympathetic nervous system D. The parasympathetic nervous system. E. None of the above. SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION 2. The brain imaging technique that reads the amount of glucose consumed by neurons & generates images of patterns of brain activity is the: A. EEG recording B. CT scan C. PET scan D. MRI E. fMRI A Brief Review of the Neuron Function of the neuron? Of glia cell? Resting potential? Action potential? Refractory period? Spatial summation? Temporal summation? THE SPINAL CORD Spinal Brain Cord Nerves CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • BRAIN • SPINAL CORD PROTECTION FOR THE BRAIN CEREBRO- VENTRICLE SPINAL FLUID THE SPINAL CORD Dura Matter Spinal Fluid THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN Human brain has been evolving for perhaps 500 million years. THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN Brain stem (”older” structures) shared with other lower-order animals. • More recently evolved structures (cerebrum) are built atop structures from our distant evolutionary past. • DEVELOPMENT (embryo) progresses in the same order . DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN BRAIN & NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain stem (”older” structures) develop first • THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN HINDBRAIN - Brain stem • (medulla, pons) - Cerebellum MIDBRAIN -Reticular Activating System FOREBRAIN -Limbic system - Cerebrum THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE HINDBRAIN • where the spinal cord enters the brain it enlarges to form the stalk-like structure of the brainstem Functions as THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE HINDBRAIN MEDULLA - Respiration & heart rate - Nerve relay between spinal cord & brain. - PONS - THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE HINDBRAIN - CEREBELLUM *MOTOR CONTROL CENTRE - attached to brainstem - - THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE MIDBRAIN • RETICULAR SYSTEM - awareness of incoming stimuli - • THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE FOREBRAIN The area of the brain that most differentiates humans from other animals. THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE FOREBRAIN THALAMUS “ SENSORY SWITCHBOARD ” • THALAMIC ABNORMALITIES - Schizophrenia - disordered sensory information THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE FOREBRAIN BASAL GANGLIAN • • Parkinson’s disease - affects BG circuits • tremor • rigidity • problems initiating movements THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE FOREBRAIN LIMBIC SYSTEM • coordinates behaviors needed to satisfy urges and motivational and emotional urges arising in the hypothalamus • instinctive activities “The 4 F’s” • memory THE HIERARCHICAL BRAIN THE FOREBRAIN LIMBIC SYSTEM • THALMAUS • HYPOTHALAMUS • • • • • AMYGDALA • • HIPPOCAMPUS • THE FOREBRAIN THE CEREBRUM: 2 HEMISPHERES, 4 LOBES CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES • 2 specialized halves (left/right) • Connected by the THE FOREBRAIN CEREBRAL CORTEX - 2/3 cm thick sheet of cells that form the outer layer of the human brain. ~ 80% of human brain tissue. - - Anencehaly PARIETAL CEREBRAL CORTEX - somatosensory FRONTAL - movement - execute & control systems OCCIPITAL - BROCA’S AREA WERNICKE’S AREA TEMPORAL - LANGUAGE DEFICITS BROCA’S
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