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Psych 1000 Chapter 12 Summary

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 12: Human Development Developmental Psychology: Study of physical, cognitive and social/emotional development throughout the lifespan (age related changes that occur consistently) Research Methods Longitudinal- same individuals are studied over periods of time Problems- subject attrition (drop out), practice effects, appear to be better (do same tasks over) Cross Sectional- people of different ages are studied at the same time Problems- cohort effects- differences due to difference life experiences, education, technology Sequential- persons of different ages are studied over periods of time (most expensive and time consuming, but gets the best data) Prenatal Development Prenatal Sexual Differentiation - XX=female XY=male (female egg is always X, male sperm is X or Y) Stages of prenatal development: Germinal Stage (conception-days), Embryonic Stage (2-8 weeks), Fetal Stage (9 weeks-birth) Prenatal Influences on Developmental Teratogens- environmental factors that can harm fetus - diseases (rubella, herpes,AIDS) - drugs (cocaine, caffeine, alcohol, smoking) Sensory-PerceptualAbilities in Newborns Reflexes- rooting, sucking, grabbing, grasping Poor vision at birth (20/800), best at 7-8inches Preference for patterns- faces, novelty, orienting (pay attention) and habituation (lack of response after it has been repeatedly exposed) Imitate adult facial expressions Good auditory skills (even pre-birth) Keen sense of smell Cognitive Development- Piagets Theory Schemas- mental representations of the world Adaption (schemas change): Assimilation- fit new information into existing framework Accommodation- change existing framework to fit new information Stages: Sensorimotor (0-2 years) - learning through the physical world, object permanence (out of sight out of mind, 9 months realize it still exists) Preoperational (2-7 years) - symbolic play (house), egocentrism (think everyone sees the world the way they do, cant see other peoples perspectives), no concept of conservation, one dimension at a time (tall /short glass, even though seen the same amount of water poured from one to another) Concrete Operations (7-12) - conservation, logical thought, understand tall/short glass, cant think abstract/imagine Formal Operations (12-adult) - deductive, abstract reasoning, understand “what if's” Information- Processing Perspective -cognitive development involves the increasing ability to process, store, and retrieve information -children process bottom up, don’t have many schemas -Why? Processing speed increases, mem
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