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Lecture 9

Psychology 1000 Lecture 9: October 11 psych lec

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 October 11, 2016 Genetics ➢ Heritability Questions to be Answered: How do I estimate heritability? ➢ Genetic base of intelligence Is intelligence heritable? ➢ Genetic disorders What is the cause of genetic disorders? Next time: Evolution and Behaviour Scan: Finish Chapter 4 Consider: - Hair colour in Inuit (hair colour is all black)- h2= 0, because there is not variability Note: ✓ H2 increases as genetic diversity increases ✓ H2 decreases as environmental diversity increases Heritability of Intelligence: Notion seems reasonable • Oskar Stohr and Jack Yufe- separated at birth. Both of them were so similar when they met. They are so similar, there must be a genetic contribution. • Family relationship studies- Twin studies use this Identical twins= 100% Fraternal twins= 50% Parent, sibling= 50% Grandparent, aunt, uncle= 25% 1 cousin= 12.5% Galton: Hereditary Genius o 1869 relatives of intelligent people… also intelligent o adopted sons were not o measures simple motor and sensory abilities o believes that intelligence was unitary/one thing only (mental quickness) o develops correlation coefficient o results disappointing- the correlations for measured intelligence between intelligent people and their biological kids were not as strong as he thought Sir Cyril Burt: o large scale study of twins reared apart o intelligence is highly heritable o reports h2 approaching 1.0 o came up with the idea of streaming- he can measure who’s intelligent or who isn’t o problem with his work= he lied, he made up his work Bouchard’s Twin Studies (best study): o looks are heritability by looking at twins that were separated, he then brings them back, tests their intelligence o identical twins, apart the correlation= 0.72 o identical twins, together correlation= 0.86 o fraternal twins, together correlation= 0.60 o siblings, together correlation= 0.47 o adopted sibs, together correlation= 0.34 o same person= 0.87 o h2= 0.72 • not saying that I.Q is genetically determined • Of the observed variability in measured I.Q., we can attribute 72% to genetic factors Scarr and Carter- Saltzman (1979): Important assumption: o No environmental differences for identicals versus fraternals o Looks at identical and fraternal twins, gives them DNA tests to make sure they are identical or fraternal Absolute difference Scores: Cognitive Tests: Identical= 0.68 Fraternal= 0.81 Personality Tests: Identical twins= 0.82 Frater
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