Psychology 1000 November 10, 2016
Questions to be Answered:
➢ Circadian rhythms
➢ Consciousness What are the daily rhythms affecting humans?
➢ Sleep stages
What is consciousness?
Next Time: Dreaming
Scan: Pages 197-204 What happens when we sleep?
Discussions 2 chapter 5: open next week
• Daily cycles
o Blood pressure
o Body temperature
o Chemical concentrations of all kinds (neurotransmitter levels, etc.)
• 25-hour “clock”
• peak levels in late afternoon (best time for physical tasks)
• all controlled by the area of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus
o internal timing mechanism in hypothalamus
• daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal gland
o photosensensitive ganglion cells (some are photosensitive, have pigment in them
called melanopsin blue light
• darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin…we feel tired
• jet lag and shift work
• phase advance more difficult than phase delay, e.g., flying Vancouver to Halifax (early
time zone to a late time zone) more problematic than east to west
• what can we do?
o Take melatonin?
▪ Jury still out…
• Seems “safe”
• More effective for delay
• Probably works by relieving daytime fatigue
Avoiding jet lag:
• Hydrate on plane
• Avoid alcohol (dehydrates)
• Get up and stretch
• Light meals
• Expose self to sunlight upon arrival Consciousness- awareness of the relationship between self and the external world
Why do you want to be conscious?
➢ Monitoring- keeping track of self
➢ Control- planning
➢ Info not currently available, but could be- like a memory thing
➢ What does your parents’ house look like?
Subconscious Level (unconscious):
➢ Info not accessible, but... may “leak” out from time to time
➢ Study Adrien Owen looks at people in coma (unconscious). Brings them into MRI/fMRI
machine being scanned. Has patient and controlled groups. Asks a number of
questions…if the answer is yes, think about cleaning up the house…if no, think about
playing tennis- his results were that people in an unconscious state can still hear you.
3/100 people will only show this, not everyone will show this
➢ Freudian Slips: Unconscious leakage?
• Freud (1908): “a happy person never fantasizes, only an unhappy person fantasizes”
Most of us daydream…
• Roughly every 90 mins
1. Failure or success
3. Sex or romance
5. Problem solving
1. Safety valve- escape from life
2. Alters mood in positive direction
3. Low-risk way to deal with problems- imagine reality
4. Increase arousal- good for you to daydream
Stages of Sleep:
• During sleep, body begins to “shut down” – turn down its normal daily activity