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Lecture 14

Psychology 1000 Lecture 14: nov 10 lec notes

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Psychology 1000

Psychology 1000 November 10, 2016 Consciousness Questions to be Answered: ➢ Circadian rhythms ➢ Consciousness What are the daily rhythms affecting humans? ➢ Sleep stages What is consciousness? Next Time: Dreaming Scan: Pages 197-204 What happens when we sleep? Discussions 2 chapter 5: open next week Circadian rhythms… • Daily cycles o Blood pressure o Body temperature o Chemical concentrations of all kinds (neurotransmitter levels, etc.) • 25-hour “clock” • peak levels in late afternoon (best time for physical tasks) • all controlled by the area of the brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus o internal timing mechanism in hypothalamus • daylight stimulates the SCN, which inhibits production of melatonin in pineal gland o photosensensitive ganglion cells (some are photosensitive, have pigment in them called melanopsin blue light • darkness removes the inhibition, resulting in more melatonin…we feel tired Disturbances: • jet lag and shift work • phase advance more difficult than phase delay, e.g., flying Vancouver to Halifax (early time zone to a late time zone) more problematic than east to west • what can we do? o Take melatonin? ▪ Jury still out… • Seems “safe” • More effective for delay • Probably works by relieving daytime fatigue Avoiding jet lag: • Hydrate on plane • Avoid alcohol (dehydrates) • Get up and stretch • Light meals • Expose self to sunlight upon arrival Consciousness- awareness of the relationship between self and the external world Why do you want to be conscious? ➢ Monitoring- keeping track of self ➢ Control- planning Preconscious Level: ➢ Info not currently available, but could be- like a memory thing ➢ What does your parents’ house look like? ➢ Tip-of-the-tongue Subconscious Level (unconscious): ➢ Info not accessible, but... may “leak” out from time to time ➢ Study Adrien Owen looks at people in coma (unconscious). Brings them into MRI/fMRI machine being scanned. Has patient and controlled groups. Asks a number of questions…if the answer is yes, think about cleaning up the house…if no, think about playing tennis- his results were that people in an unconscious state can still hear you. 3/100 people will only show this, not everyone will show this ➢ Freudian Slips: Unconscious leakage? • Freud (1908): “a happy person never fantasizes, only an unhappy person fantasizes” Most of us daydream… • Roughly every 90 mins 1. Failure or success 2. Aggression 3. Sex or romance 4. Guilt 5. Problem solving Why daydream? 1. Safety valve- escape from life 2. Alters mood in positive direction 3. Low-risk way to deal with problems- imagine reality 4. Increase arousal- good for you to daydream Stages of Sleep: • During sleep, body begins to “shut down” – turn down its normal daily activity
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