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Lecture 4

Psychology 1000 Lecture 4: Behavioural Genetics

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Psychology 1000
Terrence Biggs

Behavioural Genetics Sept.29/2016 Chromosomes and Genes ➢ Terms: genes, chromosomes, DNA, genome ➢ Geno and phenotypes • Eg. How tall you can grow vs. how tall you actually grow • Lots of genetic programming to be tall  theoretically provides an advantage for survival Avg height now taller due to better nutrition; better able to actually reach genotype potential ➢ Heredity encoded in combos of bases (ATGC) these are carriers for protein manufacture ➢ Dominant, Recessive, Polygenic • Dominant shows • Recessive will not be displayed unless inherited from both parents • Polygenic transmissionmultiple gene pairs influence phenotype eg. green eyes possibly ➢ Human Genome Project (1990) • >75 genes contributing to hereditary diseases have been indentified ➢ Genetic engineering • Recombinant DNA • Gene knockout- particular fxn of gene is eliminated • Problem?- few behaviours controlled by single gene *Interesting fact: sharks don’t get cancer ➢ Heritability coefficient- estimate of how much of characteristic is due to genetic factors ➢ Concordance rate • Rate of co-occurrence of a characteristic among individuals. Higher rates among those are more related to one another= possible genetic contribution • Studied through adoption studies, twin studies • 1.00 is a perfect correlation ➢ Twin Studies- why use fraternal twins vs. siblings? To prevent age diff when comparing (eg. diff social environments- peers, tech, upbringing). • Intelligence- genes or environment? • Personality- need to look at: - Genetic contribution - Shared family environment - Unique individual experiences - Studied using 4 groups: identical twins reared together and apart, fraternal twins reared together and apart • Other - Athleticism, preservation of life, equality attitudes inherited characteristics may dispose ppl to certain activities. Also, alcohol, personality disorder, SAD ➢ Reaction Range - Are there genetically determined ‘boundaries’ on the expression of a trait? • Reaction range - Range of possibilities- upper and lower limits- that the genetic code allows Behavioural Genetics Sept.29/2016 - Individual inherits range for potential expression of a trait - Environmental effects determine where person falls within these limits *Know Genetic Influences: Misconceptions vs Correct Understanding* - From Genes and Evolution PP Slide 20 ➢ Genetic counselling ➢ Evolut
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