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Lecture 3

Psychology 1000 Lecture 3: Biological Foundations of Human Behaviour

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Psychology 1000
Terrence Biggs

Biological Foundations of Human Behaviour Sept.20/16 The Organism as a Machine ➢ The Reflex Concept; Descartes • Humans be studied “like machines” • All actions are a response to external events • Right in the motor-sense ➢ Chain of events: 1. Stimulation of sense to brain to soul to muscle 2. Energy taken in and reflected out **Considered the soul** Basic Nervous Functions ➢ Tripartite system • Reception, rxn, integration Nerve Cells ➢ The neuron • Main parts • Diseases (MS from demyelination), abnormalities • Types (pyramidal cell, motor neuron) • Glial cells Nerve Conduction ➢ Polarization • Resting potential of -70mv • RP created with Na+ and K+ and negative ions ➢ Action Potential • Steps/ Process • All-or-none law • Diagrams: AP graph w voltage and time; sodium channels/ ions ➢ Stimulus Intensity • Mechanisms for determination: 1. Number of neurons firing; 2. Frequency of impulse • Max rate= 1000 impulses/ sec ➢ Myelin Sheath • Role as an insulator and a conductor • MS disease ➢ Neurotransmitters • Depolarize/ hyperpolarize membranes, respectively stim’g/ inhibiting neuron firing (flow of Na+ ions) ➢ The Synapse • Charles Sherrington and his experiment • TEMPORAL SUMMATION • Produces neurotransmitters ➢ Deactivation of Neurotransmitters (Fain 1999) • Breakdown OR Reuptake ➢ Specialized transmitter Systems • Ach- muscle memory • Dopamine- excitory • Serotonin- mood, eating, sleep, sex • Endorphins- Inhibit pain, Inc. feelings of well-being Biological Foundations of Human Behaviour Sept.20/16 The Nervous Syste
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