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Psychology 1000 - Chapter 9-11.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 9 Language Mental RepresentationsDefineIncludes images ideas concepts and principlesMental RepresentationsWe use mental representations to manipulate them in the forms of language thinking reasoning and problem solvingLanguageConsists of a system of symbols and rules forcombining these symbols in ways that can generate an Define infinite number of possible messages and meaningsLanguagePsycholinguistics Psycholinguistics Scientific study of the psychological aspects of language such as how people understand produce and acquire languageAdaptive Functions of LanguageHuman thought and behaviour depend on more thanthe physical structure of the brain proven by time lagsand our capabilities at that certain period Language evolved as people gathered to form larger What are some adaptive social unitsfunctions of languageIt was due to need of developing create divisions of labor and cooperative social systems develop social customs and communicate thoughts and to pass on knowledge and wisdom It helps to communicate with each other and our thoughts desires and needs interact in rich and diverse ways that otherwise would not be possible Language is also a learning mechanismProperties of LanguageDescribe key propertiesLanguage is Symbolic and Structuredof languageo Uses sounds written characters or some othersystem of symbols to present objects eventsideas feelings and actions o Grammarset of rules that dictate how symbolscan be combined to create meaningful units of1communicationSyntaxthe rules that govern the order ofwords and that is why it is easy for you torecognize if a sentence is said correctly ornotLanguage Conveys Meaning o Semanticsthe meaning of words and sentencesDefine o Semantics is the reason why you dont imagine Grammar when your friend says you nailed a test you Syntax literally nailed a testSemanticsGenerativityLanguage is Generative and Permits DisplacementDisplacemento Generativitysymbols of language can becombined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaningo For example 26 letters in English language can be combined into thousands of words and create a limitless number of sentenceso Displacementlanguage allows us to communicate about events and objects that are not physically present discuss about past or future events or imaginary situationsThe Structure of LanguageDifferentiate betweenSurface Structure and Deep Structuresurface and deep o Surface StructureConsists of the symbols that structureare used and their order to understand a sentencethat you just read listened to or produceDescribe the hierarchy of o Deep Structurerefers to the underlying language meaning of the combined symbols o A single surface structure can gibe rise to twodeep structures for example The police must stopdrinking after midnightThe Hierarchical Structure of LanguageDefine o Phonemethe smallest unit of speech sound in a Phoneme language that can signal a difference in meaning Morpheme for example th a and t can be combined to form Discourse the threephoneme word that o Phonemes have no inherent basic meaning butthey alter meaning when combined with otherelements o Morphemesthe smallest units of meaning in a language 2 o Discoursesentences are combined into paragraphs articles books conversations etco Look on page 319Fig 93Understanding Producing LanguageThe Role of BottomUp Processing o Individual elements of a stimulus are analyzed andthen combined to form a unified perception o Steps when reading a sentence 1 Analyzing the basic elements of the visualpatterns that are right before your eyesExplain the role of 2 Feeding this information to other cell bottomup and todown groups that lead you to perceive these processes in language patterns as lettersUse speech segmentation o Hierarchical structure of spoken language is a and pragmatics as bottomup processexamplesThe Role of TopDown Processing o Sensory information is interpreted in light ofexisting knowledge concepts ideas andexpectations o Speech segmentationperceiving where eachword within a spoken sentence begins and endso We use several cues to tell when one spoken wordends and another begins one is memory and otheris context where the word is placed in a sentencePragmatics The social Context of Language o A knowledge of the practical aspects of usinglanguage o Pragmatic knowledge helps you understand whatother people are really saying but also helps youmake sure that other people get the point of whatyoure communication o Pragmatics is another example of how topdownprocessing influences language use Language Functions the Brain and Sex Differences o Brocas areainvolved in word production andarticulation located in the left hemisphere o Wernickes Areainvolved in speechcomprehension located in the rear portion of thetemporal lobe3
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