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Psychology Chapter 13 Full Review.docx

13 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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Psychology Chapter 13 Full ReviewAttributions Judgments about the causes of our own and other peoples behavior and outcomesPersonal Internal Attributions Infer that peoples behavior is caused by their characteristics My A on the test reflects my high ability Situational External Attributions Infer that aspects of the situation cause a behavior I received an A because the test was easyThere are three types of information determine the attribution we makeConsistency Is a response consistent over time Distinctiveness Is a response distinctive Consensus How do other people respond PERSONAL ATTRIBUTIONLow Low PERSONAL High Consistency Distinctiveness Consensus ATTRIBUTION SITUATIONAL ATTRIBUTIONHigh High SITUATIONAL High Consistency Distinctiveness Consensus ATTRIBUTION Fundamental Attribution Error We underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other peoples behavior When it comes to explaining our own behavior we tend to protect our selfesteem by displaying a selfserving bias making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failuresMany studies suggest that the tendency to attribute other peoples behavior to personal factors reflects a Westernized emphasis on individualismPrimacy Effect Refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person Regency Effect Refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the most recent information that we learn about a personYour behaviour Unfriendly Guarded George responds Your expectation in an unfriendly George is fashion unfriendlySelfFulfilling Prophecy When peoples erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviors thereby confirming the original impressionAttitude A positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus such as a person action object or conceptThree Factors To Explain The AttitudeBehavior Relationship 1 Attitudes influence behavior more strongly when counteracting situational forces are weak a Financial incentives conformity and obedience pressures along with other conditions may lead people to behave in ways that are at odds with inner convictions 2 Attitudes have a greater influence on behavior when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held
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