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Psychology Chapter 12 Full Review.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology Chapter 12a Full Review Developmental Psychology: Issues and Methods Natureand Nurture Criticaland StaChangeversus DPsychologyal Sensitive Periods Continuity versus Discontinuity Nature and Nurture: To what extent is our development the product of heredity (nature) or product of the environment (nurture)? How do nature and nurture interact? Critical and Sensitive Periods:  Critical Period: An age range in which certain experiences MUST occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path.  Sensitive Period: An optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development will still be possible. Continuity Vs. Discontinuity: Is development continuous and gradual? Or is it discontinuous, processing through qualitatively distinct stages? Stability Vs. Change: Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age? There are five developmental functions that developmental psychologists use to address the above issues. • An ability present at or before birth that remains relatively No Change constant across the lifespan. • An ability not present, or very immature, at birth that develops Continuous gradually over months or years and then remains contstant over Change age. (Continuity ) • An ability that progresses in stages, with relatively rapid shifts Stages from a lower level of performance to a higher level. (Discontinuity) • An ability that emerges after birth, peaks, and disappears with Inverted U- Shaped age. Function • An ability that is present early in life, disappears temporarily, U-Shaped and re-emerges later. Function Research Designs Cross-Sectional Design Compare people of different ages at the same point in time. Test each person only once and compare how well the different age groups perform. Benefit: Data from many age groups can be gathered quickly Drawback: Different cohorts grew up in different periods. Longitudinal Design Repeatedly tests the same cohort, as it grows older. Drawback: Very time consuming and over time the sample size may shrink. Sequential Design Combines a cross-sectional design and a longitudinal design. Repeatedly test several age cohorts as they grow older and determine whether they follow similar development patterns. Prenatal Development Fetal Stage •Week 9 - Birth •Fetus Embryonic •Muscles Stage Strengthen •Week 3 - Week 8 •Week 24: Eyes Open •Embryo •Age of Viability Germinal •Placenta Stage •Umbilical Cord •Heart Begins to •First 2 weeks Beat •Zygote Fertilized Germinal Stage:  Approximately the first two weeks of growth and development.  Zygote: The fertilized egg.  Zygote undergoes repeated cell division. Embryonic Stage:  Week 3 – Week 8.  The cell mass is now called an embryo.  Placenta and umbilical cord develop. o Placenta: Located on the uterine wall, the placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother’s blood to the umbilical cord. o Umbilical Cord: The umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carry these nutrients and oxygen to the embryo and waste products back from the embryo to the mother. (Develops in the 5 week).  The heart begins to beat by the end of the eighth week.  Endoderm differentiates into the digestive system.  Mesoderm differentiates into skeleton, muscles, reproductive and circulatory systems.  Ectoderm differentiates into nervous system and skin. Fetal Stage:  The embryo is now called a fetus.  During this stage, muscles become stronger and bodily systems continue to develop.  14 Week – Fetal movements are felt.  18 week – Fetal heartbeat can be detected.  By week 24, the eyes begin to open.  By week 28, the fetus attains the age of viability – it is likely to survive outside the womb in case of premature birth. Critical Periods in Prenatal Development: The most important critical period is the first 8 weeks after conception because after that time the risk for major defects in the following structures drops of considerably: heart, arms, and legs. Genetics and Sex Determination  The Y chromosome contains a specific gene known as the TDF Gene; that triggers male sexual development.  At 6-8 weeks after conception, the TDF initiates the development of the testes.  Once formed, the testes secrete sex hormones called androgens that continue to direct a male pattern of organ development. Environmental Influences  Teratogens: Substances that can cause birth defects in babies.  Antibiotics: Can cause deafness, or bone and tooth deformities.  Antidepressants: o Tricyclic’s have been associated with some birth defects, no effect on later development. o Lithium has been associated with cardiovascular abnormalities. o Prozac – no adverse side affects found. Cigarettes  Higher risk of infant illness.  Low birth weight.  Later, children are more hyperactive, lower IQ, impaired motor skills. Marijuana  Later difficulties (tremors and visual problems).  Later, children are more hyperactive, lower IQ, impaired motor skills. Caffeine  Complications during labor and delivery Drinking During Pregnancy Regular Drinking (1-2 Daily) Causes impaired fine motor skills and slower information processing. Irregular Binge Drinking (5 or More) Lower intelligence and academic and behavioral problems. Alcohol Abuse (6 or More Daily) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a group of severe abnormalities that results from prenatal exposure to alcohol.  Growth deficiencies.  Lower IQ  Smaller Brain Infancy and Childhood The Amazing Newborn In a study performed by Fants, a preferential looking procedure was used to study infants’ visual preferences. Infants preferred complex patterns, rather than simple patterns. A newborn is born with innate reflexes:  Step reflex  Grasp reflex  Crawl reflex  Rooting reflex  Tonic neck reflex Whereas vision is poor, an infant’s sense of smell and sense of hearing are both excellent. A new visual preference can be establish in newborns by using the visual habituation procedure – the same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines. An auditory habituation procedure was used to study infant memory. Procedures Summarized Preferential Looking Procedure Used to study infants visual preferences. Visual Habituation Procedure The same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines. Auditory Habituation Procedure Used to study infant memory. Sensory-Perceptual Development Physical, Brain, and Motor Development Maturation: The genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth, our bodies and movement (motor) skills develop rapidly during infancy and childhood. Cephalocaudal Principle This principle reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to- foot direction. Proximodistal Principle This principle states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts of the body. The brain shows most rapid growth by 6 months of age, where it has doubled in weight. By 5 years of age, the brain has reached 90% of its adult weight. Integrated Model of Development Biological Contribution:  Genetics/Biology sets limits. Environmental Contribution:  Experience contributes to development. Reflexes: Automatic, inborn behaviors that are elicited by specific stimuli. Three Points that Apply Across The Realm of Human Development Biology Sets Limits on Environmental The best nutrition will not enable most Influences people to grow taller, and no infant can poo before the nerve fibers that help to regulate bladder control have matured. Environmental Influences Can Be Nurturing environments foster physical, Powerful sensory-motor, and psychological growth, while impoverished environments can stunt growth. Biological and Environmental Factors Enriched environments enhance brain Interact development. In turn, brain development facilitates our ability to learn and benefit from environmental experiences. Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stage Model Adaptation Building mental representationsof the world through direct interaction with it. Assimilation Fit
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