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Psychology Chapter 12b Full Review.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology Chapter 12b Full Review The Day Care Controversy High quality day care provides:  Stimulating environment with well-trained caretakers.  Fewer children per caretaker – more individualized attention.  Lower staff turnover. Low Quality day care provides the opposite. Attachment: High-quality childcare did not seem to disrupt infants’ or very young children’s attachment to parents even when they attended for many hours a week. Low-quality childcare, combined with many hours there, and parents being insensitive to the child at home, increased the risk of insecure attachment. Social Behavior: No significant differences were found between the social behaviors of children raised exclusively by their mothers when compared to children that experienced childcare. Cognitive Performance: Overall, cognitive performance did not differ significantly. The Effects of Divorce on Children  Divorce rate 40% by 30 anniversary. Overall Pattern of Maladjustment  Long Term: greater risk of academic problem, troubled relationships, low self-esteem and depression.  As Adolescents: more likely to drop out of school, be unemployed, use drugs and become teen parents.  As Adults: more conflict in relationships, unemployment, depression and higher divorce rates. Moral Development Kohlberg studied why people make the judgments that they do. Kohlberg’s Stage Model “A man’s wife was dying from cancer. A rare drug might save her, but the druggist who made the drug for $200 refuses to sell it for anything less than $2000. The man tried but he could only come up with $1000. The druggist refused to give the man the drug for that price, even though the man promised to pay the rest later. So the man broke into the store to steal the drug.” Preconventional Moral Reasoning: Based on anticipated punishments or rewards.  Stage 1: Children focus on punishments. (The man should steal the drug because if he lets his wife die he will get in trouble).  Stage 2: Morality is judged by anticipated rewards and doing what is in the person’s own interest. (The man should steal the drug because that way he’ll still have his wife with him). Conventional Moral Reasoning: Based on conformity to social expectations, laws and duties.  Stage 3: Conformity stems from the desire to gain people’s approval. (People will think that the man is bad if he doesn’t steal the drug to save his wife).  Stage 4: Children believe that laws and duties must be obeyed simply because rules are meant to be followed. (The man should steal the drug because it is his duty to take care of his wife). Postconventional Moral Reasoning: Based on well thought out, general moral principles.  Stage 5: Involves recognizing the importance of societal laws, but also taking individual rights into account. (Stealing breaks the law, but what the man did was reasonable because he saved a life).  Stage 6: Morality is based on abstract, ethical principles of justice that are viewed as universal. (Saving a life comes before financial gain, even if the person is a stranger. The law in this case is unjust, and stealing the drug is the morally right thing to do). Level 1: Preconventional Actual or anticipated punishment and rewards rather than internalized values. Stage 1: Punishment/Obedience Obeying rules and avoiding punishment. Orientation Stage 2: Instrumental/Hedonistic Self-interest and gaining rewards Orientation Level 2: Conventional Conformity to the expectations of social groups; person adopts other people’s values. Stage 3: Good Child Orientation Gaining approval and maintaining good relations with others. Stage 4: Law and Order Orientation Doing one’s duty, showing respect for authority, and maintaining social order. Level 3: Postconventional Moral principles that are well thought out and part of one’s belief and value system. Stage 5: Social Contract Orientation General principles agreed upon by society that fosters community welfare and individual rights; recognition that society can decide to modify laws that lose their social utility. Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles Abstract ethical principles based on justice and equality; following one’s conscience. Moral Reasoning Childhood through Adolescence  Pre-conventional to conventional reasoning Adolescence and even Adulthood  Post conventional reasoning is uncommon A persons moral judgments do not always reflect the same stage Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory  Western culture bias with its focus on fairness and justice.  Male bias with its emphasis on justice. Women place more emphasis on caring and others’ welfare.  But evidence of gender bias is mixed. Moral Behavior and Conscience  Moral reasoning doesn’t always lead to moral behavior.  Age 2: Children understand that there are rules and feel guilty if they break a known rule.  Development of impulse control is necessary. Conscience: Internal regulatory mechanism that is present, even when not observed by adults. Freud and Conscience  Freud: Superego (conscience) develops with resolution of Oedipal complex.  Many critics disagree with Freud but do agree that children internalize their values from their parents especially if: o Positive relationship with parents. o Parents establish clear rules. o Discipline is firm but not harsh. Conscience and Temperament  Fearful inhibited children: internalize parental values more easily at an earlier age.  Fearless uninhibited children: whether discipline is gentle or harsh, is less important. Secure attachment with warm parents is more important. Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescence: The period of development and gradual transition between childhood and adulthood. Puberty: A period of rapid maturation in which the person becomes capable of sexual reproduction. Identity: Involves our gender, ethnicity, and other attributes that define our self. It is how we view our personal characteristics. Our goals and values. Identity Diffusion: Not gone through identity crisis, not concerned about or committed to values. Foreclosure: Adopt others’ values without going though an identity crisis. Moratorium: In an identity crisis, but not yet resolved. Identity Achievement: Gone through an identity crisis, successfully resolved it and have a coherent set of values. Primary Sex Characteristics: the sex organs that are involved in reproduction. Secondary Sex Characteristics: non-reproductive physical features such as breasts in women and facial hair in men. The Adolescent Mind  Greater abstract and hypothetical reasoning.  More flexible reasoning (inductive/deductive).  Greater processing speed.  Working memory more efficient.  Better focus and attention.  Better able to suppress irrelevant responses.  Some teens continue to struggle with formal thinking. The Adolescent Brain From childhood to adolescence brain growth slows  But it is still in flux.  New neural connections  Neural pruning  Streamlining of neural networks allows better communication.  Neural restructuring in prefrontal cortex and limbic system.  (Upsurge of dopamine activity involved in regulating emotional arousal, pleasure, and reward and learning.) Emotional Changes In Adolescence Larson (2002)  Overall more positive than negative feelings with changes leveling off later in adolescence.  34% noted downward change.  16% noted upward change.  Students with less positive emotions had a lower self-esteem and more negative life events in the prior six months. Relationship With Parents  80% of American teens thought very highly of and enjoyed spending time with their parents.  Low conflict with parents.  Can confide in parents.  Yet, many lied to parents within the last year (30-70%) Parent-Teen Conflict correlated with:  More school misconduct.  More anti-social behavior.  Lower self-esteem.  More drug use.  Less life satisfaction. Relationship with Peers Peer relationships more important in teens.  Spend most time with peers  Greater sharing of problems  Facilitate separation from parents and developing identity.  Influence each others’ values and behavior  Peer pressure against conduct has a strong effect. Transition into Adulthood In order of importance, the items necessary to be an adult: Individualism: responsible for ones actions; attain financial freedom. Family Capacities: Able to care for and support a family. Norm Capacities: Refrain from crime, irresponsible sex and drug use. Biological Transition: Be able to father/bear children. Legal/Chronological: Drivers license; reach age of maturity. Role Transitions: Full time employment; career; get married. Development in Adulthood  Cognitive changes  Physical changes  Moral Development  Social Development  Career Development Cognitive Development Adolescent Egocentrism: A self-absorbed and distorted view of one’s uniqueness and importance. Post Formal Thought: People can reason logically about opposing points of view and accept contradictions and irreconcilable differences. Information Processing Abilities and the Time They Decline Perceptual Speed Early Adulthood (As early as 20’s) Memory for New Factual Information During Adulthood Spatial Memory Declines gradually with age. Recall Strongly in Late Adulthood Pr
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