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Psychology Chapter 11 Full Review.docx

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology Chapter 11 Full Review Perspectives on Motivation 1) Define: Motivation: A process that influences the direction, persistence and vigor of goal directed behavior. An instinct is an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus. The concept of homeostasis, states that your body strives to maintain a state of internal physiological equilibrium. Control Center Response Sensors System Internal State Your body’s internal environment is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms. Sensors detect bodily changes and send this information to a control centre, which, in turn regulates a response system that restores bodily equilibrium to a balanced internal state. According to Hull’s Drive Theory of Motivation, physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, which are states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce tension. (e.x. Hunger and thirst) Hull proposed that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behavior. Drives are seen as PUSH factors. Whereas drives are PUSH factors, incentives are PULL factors.  An incentive is a representation of environmental stimuli that pulls an organism towards a goal. Modern Incentive Theory emphasizes the “pull” of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behavior, even in the absence of biological need  Incentive theories of motivation have been powerfully applied to the study of drug abuse. Expectancy Theories of Motivation include the value of incentives, but take a cognitive perspective. Expectancy X Value Theory: Proposes that goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by two factors: 1. The strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviors will lead to a goal; 2. The value the individual places on that goal (Incentive Value). Extrinsic Motivation Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment. Intrinsic Motivation Performing an activity for its own sake - because you find it enjoyable or stimulating. Overjustification Hypothesis: Giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation. Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory states that much of our behavior results from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defences used to keep them under control. Abraham Maslow believed that psychology’s other perspectives ignored a key motive: our striving for personal growth. o Deficiency Needs: Needs that are concerned with physical and social survival; o Growth Needs: These needs are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential. He proposed the concept of a Need Hierarchy: a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top. Once our basic physiological needs are satisfied, we focus on our needs for safety and security. Once these needs are met, we turn to our growth needs until we reach the highest level of the hierarchy.  The highest level of the need hierarchy is self-actualization, which represents the need to fulfill our potential, and it is the ultimate human motive. Growth Self- Actualization Needs Aesthetic Needs •Beauty,Symmetry Cognitive Needs •Knowledge,Understanding Esteem Needs •Approval,Recognition Deficiency Belongingness and Love Needs Needs •Affiliation,Acceptance,Affection Safety Needs •Security,PsychologicalSafety Physiological Needs •Food,Drink Self-Determination Theory: Focuses on three fundamental psychological needs:  Competence  Autonomy  Relatedness Competence Motivation reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills. Autonomy The need for autonomy is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference. Relatedness Refers to our desire to form meaningful bonds with others.  The most positive psychological outcome of all results from a balance among all three needs. Hunger Regulation Metabolism: is the body’s rate of energy utilization and about 2/3 of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism. Basal Metabolism: The resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells. Short-Term Signals There are short-term hunger signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety. Long-Term Signals There are long-term signals based on how much body fat you have. These signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little in the short term. Satiety: The state in which we no longer feel hungry as a result of eating. Some of the Signals that Control Eating by Increasing or Decreasing Hunger Signal Source Effect Glucose Blood glucose levels Drop-Rise pattern monitored by increases hunger. hypothalamus and liver. CCK (Cholecystokinin) Released into bloodstream Decreases hunger. by intestines. Leptin Secreted into bloodstream Decreases hunger. by fat cells. Neuropeptide Y Secreted by neuron within Increases Hunger the PVN of the hypothalamus. Glucose: A key nutrient that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel. Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations.  When blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose.  The drop-rise pattern caused by glucose increases hunger. CCK (Cholecystokinin): Is a peptide that is released into the bloodstream by the small intestine as food arrives from the stomach. It travels to the brain and stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease eating. Peptide: A hormone that is released by the intestines in a response to food that helps to terminate a meal. Leptin: A hormone that decreases appetite. o As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain, where receptor sites on certain neurons detect it. o These leptin signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure. Brain Mechanisms Lateral Hypothalamus (LH): An apparent “hunger on” center. Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH): An apparent “hunger off” center. Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN): A cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite.  The paraventricular nucleus appears to integrate several different short- term and long-term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes.  One transmitter, Neuropeptide Y, is a powerful appetite stimulant. Factors Affecting Weight and Appetite Genetic Predisposition BMI and Adoption Study The Concept of Set Point Size, not the number of fat cells. Bodily Homeostasis Dietary restraints lead to disinhibition. Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder involving a severe and sometimes fatal restriction of food intake. Bulimia Nervosa: A disorder involving the binging and purging of food, usually by vomiting or laxative use, because of a concern with being fat. Anorexia Nervosa Multiple Health Problems:  Depletion of bone mass  Brain atrophy  Organ Failure  Death in 15% of the cases Characterized by:  Refusal to maintain body weight.  Intense fear of being fat despite being underweight.  15% under expected weight.  Distortions in perception of body weight. Bulimia Nervosa  Onset in late teens or early 20’s.  Frequent and recurrent cycles of: o Episodes of binge eating o Dangerous measure to prevent weight gain Binge Eating Disorder  Frequent, recurrent cycles of episodes of binge eating.  Sense of lack of control of eating.  Marked distress about binge eating.  Greater number of post-pubescent males impacted. Causes of Eating Disorders Biological Factors  Genetics – higher concordance amongst identical twins.  Abnormal activity of serotonin and other chemicals that regulate eating. Psychological Anorexia:  Perfectionist, need for control.  Report parents disapproving with high standards.  Report more stressful events related to parents. Bulimia:  Depressed, anxious, with low impulse control.  Lack a stable sense of self.  Bingeing triggered by stress; followed by guilt and self-contempt. Social/Cultural  Cultural standards of beauty as thin.  Highest prevalence in Western industrialized countries. Psychodynamic Perspective The components of Personality Motive Behavior: ID:  Instinctive Impulses  EROS – Sexual  THANATOS – Aggressive  Pleasure Principle EGO:  Mediates between ID and Superego  “Ego Strength”  Reality Principle SUPEREGO:  Morals  Sense of Right and Wrong Psychological Aspects of Hunger Objectification Theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, much as external observers would.  This increases body shame, anxiety, and this leads to eating restriction and eating disorders.  Good tasting food positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption.  Food variety also increases consumption.  We tend to eat more when we are dining with other people than when eating along, in part because meals take longer.  Cultural norms influence when, how and what we eat.  The expected good taste of food motivates eating, and the thought of food can trigger hunger. Our memory, attitudes, habits, and psychological needs affect our food intake.  The availability, taste and variety of food powerfully regulate eating. Through classical conditioning, neutral stimuli can acquire the capacity to trigger hunger.  Cultural norms affect our food preference and eating habits. Obesity  The heaviest known man in the world weighed 636 Kg.  The heaviest known woman in the world weighed 545 Kg.  BMI (Body Mass Index): Is a measure of the ratio of weight to height.  Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy
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