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Cognitive Development 8.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Cognitive Development January, 31, 2013  Next time: Piaget  Scan: page 451 – 458  Agenda: o Issues in Development o Neural Development o Visual Development  Questions: o What influences development? o How does the brain change in the newborn? o How does the visual system change over the first few months of life?  James-Lange theory: no arousal, then no emotions  Schachter’s theory, one can experience emotion without arousal, but the intensity of the emotion might be lower  Lateralization o In general, right hemisphere plays greater role than left o Hauser (1993)  Emotions begin on the left side  Emotion is triggered on the left because of counter lateral control  At peak intensity greater expression on left o Note:  Left frontal lobe more involved in positive emotions, right in negative  Humans remember negatives things better than positive things  More activity in left when watching happy films, more in right for sad/disgusting films  Visible in 10-months old infants  Probably hardwired in the brain, pick up very easily  Development o Change in abilities over time  What influences Development o Nature vs. Nurture o Maturation Learning o Obviously -> interaction  Nature determines the range  Nurture chooses the alternatives  Stagelike Development o Discontinuous… stages separated by rapid growth o Qualitative difference  Each stage are different from each other  E.g. caterpillar, its life cycle, in stages to become a butterfly  Continuous Development o Smooth, continual change  Look the same, do the same o Quantitative difference  Adult can do things better than young ones,  Normative vs. Individual o Normative:  Typical sequence of change  Look for consistency  Methodology is cross-sectional  Compare people of different age with each other, looking for consistency in the different groups  Faster o Individual:  Consistency not there  Look at individual  Methodology is longitudinal  The comparison is looking at the same individual, looking at the individual’s changes  Very time consuming  Exam question: know these terms, be able to identify what kind of reach is this, cross sectional or longitudinal  Brain Development o 100 – 200 billion neurons at birth o Neurons not produced after second trimester o Increase in weight (350 – 1400 g) due to glial cells and myelination  Glial cells support cells, the weight are not due do more neurons o Number of synapses increase rapidly o Cortical development “mirrors” emergence of abilities  Frontal lobe develops last  Taste and Smell o Very much like adult  Suck faster for sweet liquid  Reject salty liquid  Pleasant expression for bananas  Frown for rotten eg
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