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Emotion 7.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Emotion January, 29, 2013  Next Time: Cognitive Development  Scan: page 439 – 450  Do discussion number 3!!! Due February 8  Agenda: o Theories of Emotion o Brain Structures o Lateralization  Questions: o How do we experience emotion? o Is arousal necessary? o What is the role of the brain structures? o Are there any hemispheric differences?  Stimulation of adrenal medulla (above kidney) (endocrine) o -> adrenaline (epinephrine)  Note: o Antagonist nature of SNS and PSNS  When one is activated, it inhibits the other one  Rebound effect o Reticular Activating System  RAS  “activates” cortex  Triggering the RAS o 1. Collateral sensory information  Non specific o 2. Cortical Feedback  More the cortical is aroused, it fires even faster and faster  Arousing the brain o Note:  RAS vs. SNS (sympathetic nervous system)  Diffuse activation systems o everywhere  Adrenergic (NE)  Antagonists  Emotion and Arousal o Darwin: expression intensifies experience  Arousal is positively related to expression o Freud: expression reduces experience  Arousal is negatively related to expression o SUPPORT?  Tourangeau and Ellsworth (1979)  Highly aroused subjects show little expressiveness  Supports Freud  Supporting Darwin,  Facial feedback hypothesis o E.g., Izard, 1977  “Updated” James- Lange Theory  Common Sense Theory o Emotion-provoking events -> perception (danger) -> Perception of emotion (fear) -> bodily arousal  Arousal is at the end, when we figure out everything  James-Lange Theory o Emotion-provoking events -> Perception (danger) -> Bodily arousal -> Perception of emotion (fear)  Arousal before emotion, arousal is necessary to feel the emotions  Izard: Facial Feedback o Changes in facial expression responsible for distinct emotion o Number of studies indicate that adopting appropriate expression yields emotion  Larid (1974) o Subjects asked to tense and relax muscles (face) o Smile or frown o Self-reported happiness is higher in smile group o Self-reported anger higher in frown group o Stimuli seen as funnier for smile group etc…  Strack et al. (1988) o Holding pencil in teeth or lips  Ekman, Levenson and Friesen (1983) o Explicit instructions following Ekman’s coding system o Measure ANS activity  Heart Rate  High o Skin temperature  High -> anger  Low -> fear, sad  Low o Happy o Disgust o Surprise  Is movement of facial muscles really necessary?  Note: Ideal test o Evaluate patient with bilateral facial paralysis o Pat
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