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Psychology 1000

Groups  Next time: Review  Read: Chapter 9 – 13  Agenda: o Reducing Obedience o Social Facilitation o Group Decision Making  Question: o How does the individual influence the group? o How does the group influence the individual? o Do groups make “better” decisions than individuals?  You observe Kris punch Laura in the nose and immediately you explain this as due to Kris having a very aggressive personality. You have just committed the o Fundamental attribution error  Must know it. critical phenomenon  Factors influencing Obedience o Status  “low” status setting -> 50% complete o Proximity  Authority figure  Proximity of learner  Remote  Hear  See and hear  Touch -> 30% complete o Generality  Certain subjects?  No  Everyone in the world does it o Lab only?  No  Hofling et. al. (1966) o People complied when a doctor called a nurse to let them change the drug for a patient  Counteracting Obedience o Personal Responsibility  Obedience drops dramatically  The person is responsible for the other person o Disobedient models  2 confederates refuse  Obedience drops to 10%  Groups o Perceive to be in a group  What is a group? o 2 or more people  Every day groups are 2 or 3 people  Relatively small in numbers o Must have:  Interaction  Communication  “we” feeling… a social identity  Common goal  The Individual in the Group o Group effects on individual o Social Facilitation  Triplett (1898)  Cyclists  Finishing reel task o If people do it with another person, then they do it faster  Allport (1924)  Mere Presence of others facilitates performance o Their presence is enough o Work faster, work better  But others report social inhibition  Presence of other decreases performance  Drive Theory (Zajonc 1965)  Presence of others Audience or Co-Actors o Increased Motivation or Arousal  Tendency to perform Dominant Response  Correct o Improved performance Facilitation  Incorrect o Impaired performance Inhibition  Going to be correct when performance of well- learned response or simple task  Going to be incorrect when acquisition of novel
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