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Lecture 28 - Thinking & Problem Solving.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology 1000 Thinking & Problem Solving January 10, 2013 Language Learning Heuristic Processing Problem Solving Next Time: Intelligence Scan: p. 355-363  How do infants acquire language?  What is thought?  What shortcuts do people use when problem solving? How many morphemes are in the word “crosswords”  Two: Root word is ‘crossword’; the ‘s’ makes it plural Language  Properties  Syntax  Humour  Surface vs. deep structure The One-Word Speaker  5 to 8 months of age, respond to parents’ words  Talking begins 10 to 20 months  Early vocabulary is simple  Nouns (mama, duck)  Interactions (hi, peekaboo)  Adjectives (hot, big)  Number 1 word: “No”  The vocabulary is likely to contain objects that the infant can manipulate  “Ball” is more likely than “ceiling”  It is difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words  Children tend to undergeneralize  Don’t get that there is more than one cat; can’t categorize The Two-Word Speaker  Telegraphic Speech  Starts around 2 years old  Vocabulary is approximately several hundred words  Speech shows proper organization  Starting to pick up syntax  They’ll say “throw ball” instead of “ball throw” Psychology 1000 Thinking & Problem Solving January 10, 2013  By 2 and a half years old, the child moves beyond 2 words and the sentences become more complex  String as much as possible together, but don’t know where to stop  Start searching for rules of generalization  The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in tense  E.g. “runned” not ran and “eated” not “ate”  Child now overgeneralizes rules  Formal schooling takes over Nature vs. Nurture  So far, it seems as if the brain is hard-wired for language development  Will language develop “on its own”? A. Wild Children – NO  Consider Amala (1.5 years) and Kamala (8 years)  Brought up by a pack of wolves after being lost in the woods  Hard callouses, moved nostrils to sniff for food, prowled and howled, sharp teeth, ate raw meat, shunned other children, followed the cat and dog around  Unable to acquire human language B. Isolated Children – Maybe 
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