Psychology Lecture 3
1. What do psychologists do?
2. Who are the pioneers of psychology?
3. How do we determine which claims about psychology are valid?
What do psychologists do?
43% are clinical psychologists, people that see patients and clients with a variety of perspectives,
deal with people 1 on 1 to deal with their issues. Usually situated in clinics or hospitals, but can
also be in schools or such
11% are counseling psychologists, deal with people that have small mental issues, not clinically
4% are developmental psychologists, concerned with what happens when an organism is born
until they reach adulthood. Interested in children, growing up, and brain development, looking
at things over time
5% are educational psychologists, what is a good way to teach, to learn. Work frequently in
research labs or research institutions or even schools. Concerned with educational system
8% are experimental psychologists, open practice and research through experimentation
7% are industrial/organizational psychologists, workplace factors. Employee retention, how to
hire people, how to reward people. Business setting.
2% are personality psychologists, concerned with traits, personality and people’s development
of personality. Trying to identify stable personality traits
7% are school psychologists, work in schools to council students. School and education related
subject. Frequently see students in a school setting, not really research or university people.
4% are social psychologists, deal with aggression, attraction, conformity etc. Many fields of
psychology originated from here.
9% are others.
Pioneers of Psychology
o How neural systems work, concerned with how brain gets signals and how we receive
sensations and react to things (reflex arc)
o Wrote huge philosophical thesis
o Designed ways to measure psychological phenomenon
o Perception tests came from some of his methods Wilhelm Wundt
o Credited as the founder of psychology, created first psychological lab
o Structuralist, believed we could be broken down like a chemical compound
o Nobody believed that he founded the first psych lab
o Claims that he was the one to make the first psych lab, he didn’t though, Wundt beat
him by 3 moths
o Functionalist, strong influence on founding of psychology
o Wrote first textbook on psychology in 1881-1882
o Wanted to study psychology, fascinated with James’ work and she went to Harvard to
study under him
o Dean of Harvard was very against her coming,