Psychology Lecture 5
1. What are some sources of bias in an experiment?
2. What is the basic structure of a neuron?
3. How do neurons work?
Within Groups Design
All subjects exposed to all conditions
o Potential order effect, watch violence first then non-violence second, creates
uncertainty in results
Need to counterbalance
o Give you access to a shock machine after angering you, and see how bad you shock the
o Given a chance to shock someone that angers you, and measures your aggression
Threats to Validity
Internal Validity (want this to be high)
o Degree to which experiment supports causal conclusion
o Degree to which results can be generalized
o Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants
o They “help” experimenter
o If I figure out what you’re looking for, I’ll help you get it
Makes study inaccurate
o Experimenter “conveys” hypothesis to participants
Suggests a certain outcome, makes study inaccurate Testing FAQ
What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life?
Doesn’t behavior depend on one’s culture or gender or personality?
What do animal experiments tell us about human behavior?
Is it ethical to experiment on animals?
o Make a judgement call, scientific value just as valuable as safety
Is it ethical to experiment on humans?
o Have to pass tons of reviews and audits to make sure that the study can happen
How do I figure out whether my study worked or not?
o Look at the data, what do the numbers say about the experiment?
Have to use statistics, way of looking at the data to see if study worked
The Nervous System
Stimuli transferred from periphery to brain and reflected back
a. Animal Spirits, believed that otherworldly forces made us feel things in
i. Our veins are hollow tubes filled with an ethereal gas