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Lecture 7

Psychology Lecture 7.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology Lecture 7: The Brain 1. Review of Neurons a. Semipermeable membrane b. Charge due to ions (-70mv) c. Action potential results from Na+ and K+ exchange d. Neurons generate action potentials in an all or nothing fashion -> get one or not e. Intensity coded as frequency of firing f. Synapse i. Action potential pushes vesicles toward gap ii. Neurotransmitters diffuse across gap iii. Lock and key reaction receptors iv. 2 Actions 1. Depolarization -> EPSP 2. Hyperpolarization -> IPSP v. Norepinephrine, Dopamine and Serotonin 1. Most important 3 neurotransmitters 2. Drug Effects 3. Gross Brain Anatomy 1. What happens when multiple neurons synapse? 2. How do drugs work? 3. What are the major structures of the brain? Drug Effects  All work at level of the synapse, and can: o Increase or decrease amount of transmitter o Processes that terminate transmitter action o Stimulates or blocks receptor sites  Cocaine o Stimulates release of Dopamine o Prevents re-uptake of dopamine so that it stays in the synapse  Curare o Blocks receptor sites for Ach  Black Widow Venom o Stimulates release of Ach o Movement and motor stimulus, heart races to the point of explosion  Botulism Toxin o Blocks release of Ach  Nicotine o Agonist –stimulates release of drug effect o Stimulates receptor molecules, “duplicating” effects of Ach o Involved in attention oriented systems  Caffeine o Antagonist –prevents neurotransmitter from doing its job o Blocks Adenosine receptor sites o Mimics adenosine in the adenosine receptors but makes you alert instead of sleepy (adenosine makes you sleepy) Excitatory Neuron vs. Inhibitory Neuron  Inhibition (stop) or excitation (stimulate)  Different neurotransmitter  Influence of receptor sites  Excitatory o Depolarize Postsynaptic membrane (EPSP)  Inhibitory o Hyperpolarize (IPSP)  EPSP and IPSP are additive across space and time o Graded potentials  At a given synapse, you can have all kinds of neurons connected  Generating hundreds of EPSP and IPSP at different places across the nervous system  Constant inhibition o Effectively raises threshold  Raises threshold of next neuron in line after action potential  Constant firing and inhibiting  Causes -70 mv to go down to -90 mv  If I want to make a system dormant or
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