Psychology Lecture 19
Dreams revisited, theories of dreaming, classical conditioning model
Are nightmares common?
Why do we dream?
How do we learn by classical conditioning?
o Mostly visual
o Mostly in color
o Duration related to REM sleep
o Events unfold in real time
o “fleeting experiences”
o Quickly forgotten
Why do we remember some dreams?
o Those in last REM period more likely to be remembered
o Reflection of cortical activity, the more intense the dream, the more likely you are to
o Lucid dreams
o Vivid, high anxiety dreams
o Significant stress correlated with increased frequency
o In adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety)
o More common in children
o Associated with taking drugs
Cipro, antihistamines, L-dopa
o Do healthy people have nightmares?
Wood and Bootzin (1990) surveyed 220 students
Measured both frequency of nightmares and anxiety levels
Self reported mean = 9 nightmares per year
Dream logs indicated up to 25 per year
Measured anxiety unrelated to frequency Theories of dreaming
Unconsious, huge part of human existence
Something that pushes you to do things you don’t want to do
Repressed wishes strive for expression
Wants to sleep but urges invade consciousness
The ego is trying to control everything
Urges from Id are constantly coming up and so Ego has to take care of
Ego censors the urges, disguises wishes