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Lecture 19

Psychology Lecture 19.docx

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Psychology 1000

Psychology Lecture 19 Dreams revisited, theories of dreaming, classical conditioning model  Are nightmares common?  Why do we dream?  How do we learn by classical conditioning?  Structure o Mostly visual o Mostly in color o Duration related to REM sleep o Events unfold in real time o “fleeting experiences” o Quickly forgotten  Why do we remember some dreams? o Those in last REM period more likely to be remembered o Reflection of cortical activity, the more intense the dream, the more likely you are to remember it o Lucid dreams  Nightmares o Vivid, high anxiety dreams o Significant stress correlated with increased frequency o In adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety) o More common in children o Associated with taking drugs  Antidepressants  Beta blockers  Antiypertensives  Cipro, antihistamines, L-dopa  Withdrawl o Do healthy people have nightmares?  Wood and Bootzin (1990) surveyed 220 students  Measured both frequency of nightmares and anxiety levels  Self reported mean = 9 nightmares per year  Dream logs indicated up to 25 per year  Measured anxiety unrelated to frequency  Theories of dreaming o Freudian/Psychoanalytic  Unconsious, huge part of human existence  The “Id”  Something that pushes you to do things you don’t want to do o Urges  Repressed wishes strive for expression  Ego  Wants to sleep but urges invade consciousness  The ego is trying to control everything  Is conscious  Urges from Id are constantly coming up and so Ego has to take care of the situation  Ego censors the urges, disguises wishes
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