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Psychology Lecture 26.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psychology Lecture 26 Thinking and Problem Solving; Language Learning, Heuristic Processing, Problem Solving  How do infants acquire language?  What is thought?  What shortcuts to people use when problem solving?  The One-Word Speaker o 5-8 months of age, kid responds to parents’ words o Talking begins at 10-20 months o Early vocabulary is very simple  Examples  Nouns: mama, duck  Interactions: hi, peekaboo  Adjectives: hot, big  Number one word: NO o Likely to contain objects that infant can manipulate  Ball is more likely than ceiling o Difficult to tell what kids mean when they use single words  We don’t really know if they mean the same thing as the word does  They under generalize  May learn that cat applies to a small fluffy thing that goes meow, but they might think that there is only 1 cat in the world o They will be shocked when someone shows them a different cat, will not know what it is o They have not classified certain words as well as they can later in life  The Two-Word Speaker o Telegraphic speech o Start around 2 years old o Vocabulary – several hundred words o Speech shows proper organization  Picked up syntax  Ex. “Throw ball” not “ball throw”  Nobody taught them this order, they picked it up themselves o By 2.5 years child moves beyond 2 words, and sentences become more complex o Start searching for rules of generalization o The 4-5 year old makes mistakes in tense  I runned down the street, instead of I ran  Child now overgeneralizes rules  Formal schooling takes over to fix this  Nature vs. Nurture o So far it seems that the brain is hard wired for language  Will language develop on its own? o Wild Children  Could not pick up language naturally o Isolated Children  Maybe can, some were able to some were not  When introduced to education and tried to fix language, some worked and some didn’t o No Models To Learn Language  Example  Deaf kids with hearing parents that do not use sign language  Kids develop their own signs with rudimentary syntax o Other animals  Can we teach other animals to speak?  Basics only  No real syntax
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