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Chapter 9 - Intelligence - day 3 class notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 9 -Intelligence  Theories  Exceptionality  Problem Solving Next time: nonverbal behaviour Scan: pg 438-447 How can we be more creative in our class? Video Discussion next week - released Tuesday(probably) What are some theoretical explanations for intelligence? What approaches do people us to solve problems? What is intelligence? Which of the following is not a measure of validity according to the text? Construct validity  Content validity  Interjudge validity  Predictive validity  All are measures BUT… what is intelligence? Autistic disorder Savant syndrome Eidetic imaging Heredity Sensory deprivation Reinforcement Lateralization(best explanation) Sternberg, 1985  Ability to give factual responses correctly (to many questions)  Ability for abstract thinking  Ability to adapt to new situations (closer to EQ than IQ)  Ability to acquire knowledge  Ability to profit from experience Intelligence is Unitary  Galton  Spearman o Better statistics(factor analysis) o Looks for patterns of correlation --> "g" - for general intelligence o each test has a specific ability - allowing some variation o Look for strong positive correlations among all the tests Intelligence is Multiplex  Binet  Thurstone o "better" statistics o Independent primary mental abilities o No "g" factor  Instead there are a bunch of primary mental abilities Thurstrone: 7 Primary Abilities  Verbal comprehension  Verbal fluency  Computation  Spatial visualization  Association memory  Perceptual speed (Galton's Idea)  reasoning How many primary abilities are there?  Depends on number of tests and number of factors extracted Thurstone = 7 Guilford = 120  The model says its more than 1, so the actual number doesn’t matter BUT… What is intelligence?  Intelligence is a pattern of mathematical correlations  The raw ability to process information Information Processing Approach  Intelligence reflects how we acquire and process information  Speed of processing o Jensen (1987) o Vernon (1987) Neuropsychological Approach Gardner (1985)  Based on case studies and neurological evidence  Multiple types of intelligence Other Multiple Models Vernon: practical - mechanical vs. verbal - educational Cattel: Fluid vs. crystallized (raw ability vs. knowledge)  As you grow older, your raw ability decreases but your crystallized grows or stays the same Sternberg's Triarchic Theory Componenets o Cognitive processes Experience o Learning Context o Behaviours considered intelligent Each area has 3 elements Components  Metacomponents  Performance components  Knowledge-acquisition components o Attentional mechanisms - extrac
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